Confucianism is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system developed from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher
Confucius (孔夫子551–479BC).Confucianismoriginatedasan “ethical-sociopolitical teaching”duringthe Springand
Autumn Period. Following the abandonment of Legalism in China after the Qin Dynasty, Confucianism became the
official state ideology of China, until it was replaced by the “Three Principles of the People” ideology with the
establishment of the Republic of China, and then Maoist Communism after the ROC was replaced by the People’s
Republic of China in Mainland China.
The core of Confucianism is humanism, the belief that human beings are teachable, improvable and perfectible through
personal and communal endeavor especially including self-cultivation and self-creation. Confucianism focuses on the
cultivation of virtue and maintenance of ethics, the most basic of which are ren, yi, and li. Ren is an obligation
of altruism and humaneness for other individuals within a community, yi is the upholding of righteousness and the
moral disposition to do good, and li is a systemof norms and propriety that determines how a personshould properlyact
within acommunity. Confucianismholdsthat one should give up one’slife,if necessary, either passivelyor actively, for
the sake of upholding the cardinal moral values of ren and yi. Although Confucius the man may have been a believer
in Chinese folk religion, Confucianism as an ideology is humanistic and non-theistic, and does not involve a belief in
the supernatural or in a personal god.
Tokugawa period (徳川時代 ) is the period between 1603 to 1868 in the history of Japan when Japanese society was
under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and the country’s 300 regional Daimyo. The period was characterized by
economic growth, strict social orders, isolationist foreign policies, an increase in both environmental protection and
popular enjoyment of arts and culture. The shogunate was officially established in Edo on March 24, 1603
by Tokugawa Ieyasu. The period came to an end with the Meiji Restoration on May 3, 1868 after the fall of Edo.
Chinese Economic Reform
Deng’s first reforms began in agriculture, a sector long neglected by the Communist Party. By the late 1970s, food
supplies and production had become so deficient that government officials were warning that China was about to repeat
the “disaster of 1959” - the famines which killed tens of millions during the Great Leap Forward. Deng responded by
decollectivizing agriculture and emphasizing the Household-responsibility system, which divided the land of
the People’s communes into private plots. Farmers were able to keep the land’s output after paying a share to the state.
This move increased agricultural production, increased the living standards of hundreds of millions of farmers and
stimulated rural industry.
Reforms were also implemented in urban industry to increase productivity. A dual price system was introduced, in
which state-owned industries were allowed to sell any production above the plan quota, and commodities were sold at
both plan and market prices, allowing citizens to avoid the shortages of the Maoist era. Private businesses were allowed
to operate for the first time since the Communist takeover, and they gradually began to make up a greater percentage of
industrial output. Price flexibility was also increased, expanding the service sector. The country was opened to foreign investment for the first time since the Kuomintang era. Deng created a series
of special economic zones for foreign investment that were relatively free of the bureaucratic regulations and
interventions that hampered economic growth. These regions became engines of growth for the national economy.
The Ministry of International Trade and Industry (通商産業省 or MITI) was one of the most powerful agencies
of the Government of Japan.At the height of its influence, it effectively ran much of Japanese industrial policy,
funding research and directing investment.
Decentralization (during the occupation of Japan by the US)
Taisho Japan (1920s)
The Taishō period (大正時代, “period of great righteousness”) is a period in the history of Japan dating from July 30,
1912 to December 25, 1926, coinciding with the reign of the Emperor Taishō. The health of the new emperor was
weak, which prompted the shift in political power from the old oligarchic group of elder statesmen to the Diet of
Japan and the democratic parties. Thus, the era is considered the time of the liberal movement known as the “Taishō
democracy” in Japan; it is usually distinguished from the preceding chaotic Meiji period and the
following militarism-driven first part of the Shōwa period.
May 4 Movement (1919)
The May Fourth Movement (五四運動) was an anti-imperialist, cultural, and political movement growing out of
student demonstrations in Beijing on May 4, 1919, protesting the Chinese government’s weak response to the Treaty of