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finals study notes; introduction to east asian history

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Meaghan Marian

Qing Empire: • Last dynasty of China (1644-1912) • Bandits over took the Ming and the government called to Manchuria for help...the manchu’s took this chance to take control • Officially founded by Narhaci • Pacified the han by employing Ming style of rule...allowing Han government officials but retained control by assuring that ½ of higher lv. Officials were Manchurian • They won over the scholarly class by giving them places in government • Ruled by the Manchu people from north eastern china who are a Tungusic ppl • Lots of protest about Manchu rule from the southern Han who wanted to restore the Ming th • Last emperor of the Qing was Pu Yi (12 ) • Golden age of the 3 emperors ( to mid 1800s) Kangxi, Yongzhen and Qinglong o Best time for literature, culture, science and architecture • 1840s opium war o So Qing faced aggression from outsiders as well as trouble inside (corrupt rulers and officials) • Revolution of 1911 led by sun-yat-sen toppled the Qing Dynasty Joseon Era: • Lasted for about 500Y (1392-1897) • A tributary state to the Qing and Ming • Became known as the hermit country due to policy of isolation because of invasions from Qing and Japan • Experienced 2 years of peace after the invasion of the Manchu’s’ ended • Yi seonggye founded the Joseon era • Confucianism was adopted to counter the strong Buddhist dominance from the previous dynasty • Used civil service exams which helped separate classes and limit upwards mobility • Hangul (official Korean script) was created...under guidance of the 4 king Opium wars • Illegal opium trade from Brittan to China because it was the only item the Chinese grew more and more addicted to... • In 1839, commissioner lin Ze Xu ended the trade by seizing and destroying British opium • In retaliation, British gunboats pounded Chinese ports to rubble, beginning the first opium war. • The war ended in 1842 with the treaty of NanKing, which legalised the opium trade and ceded Hong Kong to the British • Other western countries quickly demanded the same type of treaties. • The second opium war happened in 1856-60 with Britain and France • British wanted to extend their trading rights...found an excuse to renew hostilities when Chinese officials boarded the ship Arrow and lowered the British flag • Then French joined in...using, as their excuse the murder of a French missionary in the interior of china • The treaty of Tianjin was signed (1858) o Opening of new ports to western trade and residence o Right of foreign travel in the interior of China o Freedom of movement of Christian missionaries o And in further negotiation in shanghai...opium importation was legalized • The Chinese refused to ratify (sign or give formal consent) the treaties • The allies resumed hostilities and captured Beijing, plundered and burned the Yuan Ming Garden • Later that year (1860) Chinese signed the “Beijing Convention” in accordance to the Tianjin treaty Unequal Treaties • Any of a series of treaties in which China was FORCED to concede many of its territorial and sovereignty rights th th • Negotiated during the 19 and 20 centuries...with foreign imperialist powers (Britain, France, Germany, USA, Russia and Japan) • Treaty of Nanking (aug 29 1842) o China paid the Brits with an indemnity (Hong Kong) and agreed to establish a fair and reasonable tarrif o The Brits were previously allowed to trade only at South China port of Canton, can now trade at 5 ports (called treaty ports) • British supplementary treaty of the Bogue (following year oct 8) o Granted British citizens in china extraterritorial rights (not subject to Chinese Law) o Inclues a faboured nation clause. Guaranteeing to Britain all privileges that China might grant to any other power • Then following suite in the next few years China was forced to sign more treaties from foreigners o Treaty of Wanghia (USA)-1844 o Treaty of Whampoa (france)-1844 • Each additional treaty expanded upon the rights of extraterritoriality (diplomatic immunity) and as a result the foreigners obtained an independent legal, judicial, police and taxation system within the treaty ports. • After the Second Opium series of agreements were negotiated • Treaties of Tientsin (1858) o Supplemented the old treaties by providing for the residence of foreign diplomats in Beijing... o Rights to travel to interior of China o Opening of the country’s major waterway (Yangtze River) o Permission of Christian missionaries to propagate their faith o Legalization of opium importation and coolie (slave) trade o 10 new ports for trade • Russia signed the treaty of Aigun (1858) o Russia has jurisdiction over the lands north of Amur river from its junction with argun river to the Tatar strait o China would control the lands south of the Amur from the argun to the ussuri river o The territory east of ussuri to the sea of Japan will be held in common o According to the treaty only Russian and Chinese vessels would have been permitted to navigate the amur, ussuri and songhuajinag rivers • Resumed the war in 1860 after Chinese failed to ratify the treaties, and they signed the peking convention • In 1885 treaty of Tientsin concluded the sino French war and ceded annam (now Vietnam) to France • Treaty of Shimonoseki signed in 1895 following the sino Japanese war o ceded Taiwan and the Pescadores to Japan o recognized the independence of Korea o provided the opening of more ports o right of Japanese nationals to operate factories inside China • Boxer Protocal o Signed after the boxer rebellion’s failure o Provided the stationing of foreign troops at key points between Peking and the sea • After the Russian revolution, the Russian government terminated most of the privileges gained under the unequal treaties • Between 1928-1931 Chinese nationalists (guomindang)succeeded in persuading the western powers to return tariff autonomy • But extraterritorial preivileges were not relinquished by Brits, France and US untile 1946 • British relinquished rights to Hong Kong in 1997 • Portuguese with Macau in 1999 Boxer Rebellion • Officially supported peasant uprising of 1900 that tried to drive out all foreigners • Boxers was the name that foreigners gave to the Chinese secret society Yihequan • The group believed that their “boxing” and calisthenic rituals made them invulnerable • Their original aim was the destruction of the Qing (ming restoration) and dispel westerners • In the late 19 century there was economic impoverishment, series of natural calamities and foreign aggression • Boxers began to increase their strength in North China • In 1898 conservative anti-foreign forces won control of the government and persuaded boxers to drop attack on Qing and instead focus on foreigners • They joined forces (changed name to Yihetuan-righteous and harmonious militia) • Qing officials started to believe that the boxers rituals really did make them impervious • And Cixi (empress dowager) supported the boxers • Because Christians missionaries were so passionate and disrespectable the boxers were provoked • So by late 1899 boxers were openly attacking Chinese Christians and western missionar
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