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GGR 207 EXAM REVIEW.docx

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Department
History
Course Code
HIS299Y5
Professor
Emily Impett

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Description
Definitions of Urban The Urban Process Urban Growth Urbanization Urban Implies dense spatial concentration agglomeration of people and activities not usually considered agricultural The Urban Process Includes relationships that occur in the macro scaleglobalization urbanization mesoscale city of Toronto region of peel and in the micro scale neighbourhood streetUrbanization Refers to the shifting population balance from urban and rural areasUrban Growth Refers to the growth population area land use economic base or decline of individual areas or the growth and decline of set collection or urban areasSuburbanization CounterUrbanizationSuburbanization Shifting population balance between surubran portions of metropolitan areas and the rest of the country More people lve in suburbs as opposed to urban CounterUrbanization Also known as deurbanization It is when the balance between the urban and rural population is actually shifting towards rural areas Rural pop Growth is higher than urban pop GrowthMetropolitanization DeMetropolitanizationMetropolitan When metropolitan areas largest urban areas are growing aster than smaller urban areas pop Shifting up the hierarchyDeMetropolitanization When smaller urban areas are growing faster than metropolitan areas pop shifting down the hierarchyUrbanism as a Way of Life Based on three concepts the size the density and the heterogentity between the areas Just looks at how the quality of life so much better in urban areas as opposed to rural Rural areas have very little population not a lot of space and everyone is pretty much alike focused on the agriculture activities Most people would rather go towards the urbanism way of live simply because its more diverse Theres different activities easierFundamental characteristics of cities primary and secondary attributes of the urbanProduction Proximity Reproduction Capitalization Place Governance EnvironmentPCPRPGE 1 Production think factoriesitems sold etc 2 Proximity Everything is closeby 3 Reproduction Of individual identities cultures and ways of life Daily routinescities reproduce class relation People who work at factories and own themchildren get raised according to their parents job and take over eventually 4 Place Geographers often define place as a portion of space that is invested with human history practice and meaning While cities must produce to survive individual people only care about them because of the sense of place It is sometimes hard to pin down exactly what sense of place is and how it worksand yet everyone has an intuitive understanding of place and can describe their feelings about cities and neighborhoods theyve experienced5 Governance cities require it to fnction whereas rural areas do not could live off your own 6 Environment cities are completely humanmade 7 Capitalization how is a firm capitalized People invest in machinery and it makes money capitalizationIn a city all of the buildings are things of value in a city For example a subway tunnel You get around fast Maybe expensive but becomes useful to get around easily Cities own subways sewers electricity this all brings in money capitalizationSocial Surplus and Urbanization Social Surplus Whats left over after meeting your subsistence needs Ec Saves crops for next year Originates with the intensification of agriculture Urbanization Refers to the shifting population A balance between urban and rural areas It thus denotes social change in the quality of life AN implication for organization of economies and socities Hypotheses concerning the origins of Cities Irrigation Military Economic ReligiousIrrigation There is now little doubt that irrigation was a key factor in the growth of preindustiral ciities in the ancient world Agrociltural intensification allows a concentration of population while cooperations leads to a need for managers and bereaucrats Those who control the water resources temple elite or secular state exert power over others eg farmers planning irrigation led to the planning of the network Economic Several theorists suggested that the development of complex largescale trading networks stimulated the growth of urban society The need to increase production for trade purposes as well as to feed an expanding population would have tled to continued speciailziation and intensificationHowever it was unclear that trade was a cause of city growthMilitary Theories Some theorists suggest that the origin of cities lay in the need for people to gather together for protection against an external threat the intitial agglomeration leading to urban expansion Religious Theories Focus on the importance of a well developed power structure for the formation and perpetuation of urban places and in particular how power was appropriated into the hands of a religious elite who controlled the surplus produce provided as offeringsThe basic internal structuresforms of medieval preindustrial and industrial citiesPreindustrial Domination by an eltire occurred Elite being on top then the lower class and then the outcasts Elite occupied the central district were in control of the symbolic institutions religious educational and political structures
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