POL114H5 Study Guide - Fall 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - International Law, Cold War, United Nations

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Published on 12 Oct 2018
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Course
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POL114H5
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018
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Course Introduction
No tutorials this week or next week - start the week of September 24th
Choose 4 out of 6 terms on a list -> explain the meaning and significance - each is worth
10%
2 essay questions -> based on lectures/readings (answer 1)
Midterm Test Structure
Answer 2 out of 3 essay questions
Critically evaluate a document that he will put on Quercus
Not a research paper
Essay Assignment
International Relations - As a field of study
Different approaches and philosophical assumptions about politics and the state
Prof is using Easton and Schmitt because they are most explicit in their beliefs
Politics takes place in organized societies
Goods
Obligations - ex: taxes, going to war
Allocation of:
MEANS OF ALLOCATION: How do societies determine who gets what
when how?
When feudalism got broken down, peasants got
angry because they lost their land and found
themselves in sweatshops/factories -> less
security
Peasants still get a plot of land
In the caste system, the lowest get employment
Some still exist till today - because it provided stability - you
could always count on it, everyone has a certain privilege
Customs: feudalism, consensus, divine right of kings, caste system
in India
The market decides who gets who what when and how
The market rewards those that have something in short
supply, high demand (ex: skills, an oil well)
Exchange: equality, contract, markets, consensus
Ex: you can choose not to pay your taxes but it'll suck
Get you to do something you wouldn't otherwise do - forced
coercion and violence is the only way to make them happen
This suggests that politics is a dirty game
Consent of the governed?
Command: inequality, force, coercion
In Easton's mind - neither customs nor exchange have anything to do
with politics
Customs and traditions are good for governing until there's a surprise
To be characterized as "organized" there needs to be a way to determine who
gets what when and how
Published a book in the 1900s - started with a clear definition of what he thought
politics meant
David Easton and the liberal tradition - "politics as allocation"
POL 114 - Lecture 1 - September 12
October 9, 2018
9:34 PM
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Systems based on customs put a person in charge to deal with
surprises
In emergencies, we resort to commands - and then we are back to
politics
Customs and traditions are good for governing until there's a surprise
that pops up
Want to get rid of the government all together
Easton argues this isn't possible
There is an implicit contract in place - you give the
storekeeper a dollar for gum, they can't run after you and
get the gum back
Sanctity of contract comes from a command - and then
you're back to politics
One of the fundamentals of a market economy, is the sanctity of
contracts (need a guarantee the contract is enforced)
Exchange - libertarianism
Legislatures are an arena of politics
When they deal with the rest of the world they are united
Politics takes place within the country
Within the country there can be disagreements
"Politics stops at the waters edge." - Old British adage
There are no good and bad states - actions are determined by the threats they face
from the international system
States are first and foremost interested in their own survival, may implement what is
necessary regardless of moral considerations
States are rational actors
Theory of Realism - we grew up being taught of "Canada the good"
Disagreements about the way things are done are on the fringes of science
Copernicus and the earth -> Newton -> Einstein
In the natural science - one set of explanations tends to dominate the field of
study
Reference: Thomas Coon - The Structure of Science Revolutions
Science - a single way of seeing the "world" is explained and built upon, core matters
are permanent
Certain facts we can agree about - ex: the date of WW2
Makes the field more dynamic - you are part of an ongoing debate
What is meant by politics/political? -> We don't have an actual widely shared
definition
Political Science - no one agrees about anything
The problem with studying political science/IR
This is why Schmitt emphasized security from external people
Similar to Machiavelli and Tsun Su (Re: The Art of War) *MORE ON THIS
BELOW*
Schmitt followed "Continental tradition), cause he was from Germany - German soil
was home to lots of British land cause it is in the middle of Europe (Thirty Year War,
Napoleonic Wars) - didn't change till 1870
Law - legal and illegal
Ethics - virtue and vice
Econ - micro and macro
Schmitt lamented that politics was a muddle of whishy washy because it lacked a
definition of what it was about - the dichotomy that defined disciplines like ethics,
philosophy, econ, law - doesn't exist
Moral and cultural prejudices didn't allow people to see it how it really was
Politics missed the dichotomy cause no one wanted to articulate it
Order in society is only possible in so far as the threat of disorder posed by
other societies is kept at bay
FRIEND VS FOE / US VS THE OTHER
Karl Schmitt and Politics - Us vs the Other
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