POL114H5 Study Guide - Summer 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - International Law, Soviet Union, Soft Power

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Published on 12 Oct 2018
School
Course
POL114H5
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018
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Monday May 7th, 2018
Week 1 Lecture 1 No Chapter
Global Politics
What is Politics?
Politics can be explained in two forms:
1-Precise definition Harold Lasswell the study of who gets what, when, and how.
2-Intiuitive understanding the study of power, where power is the ability to affect change in
order to get what you want.
Power as Domination (power-over):
-Robert Dahl A has power over B to the extent that A can get B to do something he would not
otherwise do.
-The ability to compel others to do your will.
-Coercion threat or use of force.
-Giving or withholding material incentives such as money and food.
-Power is relative, and zero sum, which means that if someone has more of that power, the other
will have less.
Other Conceptions of Power:
A) Empowerment (power to):
-Ability and capacity to produce change and transform self and others.
-Positive sum (not zero sum).
B) Authority (vs. power):
-Derives from legitimacy, expertise, and social standing.
-Generally prevents coercion.
C) Power as Prerogative:
-The powerful party has the ability to make the rules that others follow, as well as break them.
For example: government officials in Arab countries.
-These powerful parties face fewer consequences than others when breaking the rules.
Soft Power:
-Joseph Nye The ability to obtain preferred outcomes through attraction.
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-Agenda-setting: identifying and publicizing issues so that others take note of them.
-Makes the costly “hard power” less necessary.
-Elements:
-Culture
-Values
-Policies
Soft Power and the Cold War:
-Regis Debray: there is “more power in blue jeans and rock n’ roll than the entire Red Army”
-Referring to the Soviet army.
-Jeans symbolized what is good about America and what Soviet’s want but cannot have.
-Jeans were associated with glamour.
-The Soviets used to show movies with homeless Americans, but the irony was in that even these
homeless people were able to afford and wear blue jeans.
Soft Power Today:
-The decline in the popularity of the United States around the world implies a decline in soft
power, and the emergence of radical groups like ISIS.
-Hard power is needed to fight the radicals, but they cannot overcome this using hard power
alone.
-Soft power is necessary to reduce the number of potential and current recruits.
Power as Hegemony:
-Antonio Gramsci of the Italian Communist Party wrote Prison Notebooks.
-Hegemony:
-The political leadership requires the consent of the governed.
-Ability to spread the ideology and view of the ruling class.
-Make others want what you want.
-If force must be used, then hegemony fails.
Who/What Yields Power?
-Government
-Bosses
-Celebrities
-Professors
-Religious leaders
-Internet trolls
-Criminals
-The wealthy
Power of the Powerless
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