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Political Science
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oIncreased cooperation on environmental issues
oComplex and growing network of international institutions and
regimes is evolving give us the capacity to deal with environmental
problems while the world economy continues to grow
oStates have shown a willingness to reach agreements on water
managements, pollution, fishing disputes, without resorting to
military force
oUtilizable resources
oIncrease source of conflict in the future
oEnvironmental degradation will not alter the nature of world
politics but lead to increased conflict and wars between states and
people in environmentally stressed regions
oResource wars over oil, water & arable land
oEnvironment prominent feature of political power Ex. China & India
Increased bargaining power world frightened of
global environmental impact of mass
Leverage on future negotiations on pollution
oDeforestation and soil degradation part of a process of capitalism
exploitation in the periphery
oNo final answer to environmental problems until exploitative elites
that dominate the capitalist system are overthrown and capitalism
itself is replaced

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oDestruction of habitat instruction of patriarchy
- Substantial economic growth since 1945
- The Gap between the wealthy and the poor never greater
- Poor nations are burdened /w external debt, poverty, unsustainable
agricultural and industrial process
-In addition the poverty the citizens are living in sickening conditions
- The divergence of wealth is central idea in Global Pol.
- However, Convergence can be seen between North America and Europe
- Globalization is based on liberal economic theory
osee the world as a struggle between states for preservation and power
oIPE economic nationalism will prevail , states will cooperate in the
world/economy when it is in their interests to do so , but frequently
they will be in conflict or competition
oGovernments are primarily concerned with the health & security of
the nation state itself economic power is simply a means of
maintaining or increasing the power
oMaintenance of protectionalists trade barriers the provision of
subsides & tax benefits to crucial industries and economic sectors , the
disagreement between states in world and regional trade talks and the
existence of trade ware ( Ex. US & European Union Steel Dispute
2004 ) as evidence that the world economy is a competitive arena in
which states pursue their interests
oRealists argue we can expect only limited progress from world and
regional trade talks from financial institutions & trade organizations

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These institutions and organizations are controlled
by the state and beneath layer of liberal principles
most states most of the time will pursue their
own interests first and foremost
THEREFORE failure to reach trade and
financial agreements gap between rich and the
poor & existence of trade wars
-believe that states will take part in neo mercantilism when it benefits them
- Governments are primarily concerned w/ health and security of their states
-Having power over the economy is a way of having global power
-Examples can be seen w/: the protectionist trade barriers, provisions of
subside and tax benefits to industrial and economic sectors in which states
pursue self interests
-This explains failure to reach trade agreements (1), the persistent economic
gap between the North and South (2), and the existence of war (3)
oIndividuals, households, firm maximizing their opportunity to pursue
mutually beneficial exchange in the global marketplace
oThrough competitive advantage a world supporting the principles of
free trade will gather the benefits of the efficient us of capital and
oInstitutions of the world economy were built by states in accordance
with these liberal economic principles & through tariff reduction ,
nondiscrimination, national treatment and the harmonization of
regulations , a rule based trade and financial system has emerged
oPositive development greater cooperation & economic
interdependence a wealthier & less warlike world can be built
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