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POL114H5 Study Guide - Final Guide: Fredric Lehne, Solution Selling, Wage War

Political Science
Course Code
Lee Ann Fujii
Study Guide

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1. Emergence of the Modern State: War-Making and State Making section (WHAT IS A
We cannot define states by size or symbolic criteria bc. then Facebook would be
considered a state and other places such as Canada would not
States can only be defined by “means”, not by “ends”
Early states founds that
oDiverse communities, lands, production methods, practices, customs, local
oEvery little sub culture had their own way of doing things
ohis made it very confusing for the state
State’s main tasks:
oRaise revenue
okeep the peace (in a perfect world)
Politics are broad and comprise of any kind of independent leadership in action
Every state is founded on physical force
oif state isn't always present, surveillance capability is always there; cannot rule
this out. ex) if no one is going through a green light, you’re at the red and you do
not go through because you have the sense that someone is watching (the state)
If no violence, then the concept of “state” would be eliminated and anarchy would exist
A state is a human community that claims the monopoly of the LEGITIMATE use of
physical force within a territory
Therefore politics for us means striving to share power or influence the distribution of
power, either among states or among groups within a state
Without the monopoly on violence, citizens would have no need to follow rules
The Mafia are rivals that the state wishes to eliminate
How is the state present in your life?
oThe state is everywhere (ex. Stopping at stop sign; paying taxes)
oProvides goods (ex. Education- they force you to bring your child to school or will
take them away)
The three basic legitimations of domination are:
oTraditional: The authority of the ‘eternal yesterday’ - sanctification by the ancient
recognition and habit to conform (ex. Queen Elizabeth)
oCharismatic: The authority of the extraordinary and personal ‘gift of grace’ - the
absolutely personal devotion and personal confidence in revelation, heroism, or
other qualities of individual leadership (ex. Hitler)
oLegal-rational: Domination by virtue of ‘legality- The belief in the validity of
legal statute and functional competence based on rationally created rules (ex.
Prime minister)
State = an organized form of domination
To maintain a dominion by force, certain material goods are required, just as with an
economic organization
All states can be classified according if they rest on the principle that the staff of men
themselves own the administration, or if the staff is separated from these means of

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Frederic Lane pointed out the different behaviour we might expect of the managers of a
protection-providing gov’t owned by:
oCitizens in general (exercised effective ownership of gov’t)
oA single self-interested monarch (maximize tribute; indifferent to level of
oThe managers themselves (keep costs high by maximizing their own wages;
maximize tribute over and above those costs by extorting a high price from their
subjects; indifferent to level of protection)
oBut Lane did not discuss a dominant class
Lane speculated the logic of the situation produced 4 stages in the general history of
oA period of anarchy and power
oA stage in which tribute takers attracted customers and established their
monopolies b struggling to create exclusive, substantia states
oA stage in which merchants and landlords began to gain more from protection
rents than governors did from tribute
oA period (fairly recent) in which technological changes surpassed protection rents
as sources for entrepreneurs
Emergence of Weberian States
oWar makes states
oThen vs. Now (Scene from Ivanhoe)
Loyalties are personal (Ivanhoe accused of betraying King Richard, not
Authority is overlapping (lords, knights, priest, etc. all within the same
territory.. nobody has the monopoly)
oStates = rackets
Racketeer creates a threat then charges for a solution
selling protection to problems, often created by the state
Scene from The Departed (protection is offered for the shop by paying
Tilly’s 4 steps; the organization of the modern state was as follows (Violence used in all
oWar making → Raising armies and eliminating external threats
oState making → Eliminating internal rivals (within their territory)
oProtection → Protecting from external or internal threat through courts and war,
defending the client (citizens) (eliminating rivals of their clients)
oExtraction → Acquiring the means of carrying out the first 3 activities (state
agencies like the modern CRA/IRS)
International Law prevents the 1st step on Tilly’s list
Note: Popular resistance mattered (state forced into making concessions; concessions
constrained future activities)
oDoes Tilly expect Somalia to form the same way as European states?
Charles Tilly Concepts
Organized crime and states are one in the same
Create the threat and charge a fee for protection
State emergence occurred over hundreds of years

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Survival of the fittest in the political realm
Hierarchy's were important; like monarchies over barons, barons over landlords and
landlords over slaves
oWeberian states of rackets selling protection
oMonarchs would go to war to check rivals and overcome competitors
oWar making was expensive and therefore taxes could be extracted from the
oMore efficient war maker = more conquered territory
State making is simply eliminating those who can wage war within an area
Somalia (Peter Maas)
An example of a failed state
Is lucky to be in modern times because in the past would have been overtaken by a
neighbouring state
Not monopolized, centralized or legitimate use of violence
Multiple attempts at the Charles Tilly theory, but no success
2. The Role of the Modern State: What does the state do? (WHAT DO STATES DO)
Census in Afghanistan… why?
oCounting people
oRegistering people
oForces people to choose last names and birthdays
oUsing identity cards
Collectivization in Cambodia
oCambodia under Khmer Rouge
oEmptying the cities
oForcing everyone to work in communal forms
Become self-sustaining
Scott’s answer- because that’s what states do, they seek to make territory
and people “legible” (easy to understand)
Why do states want legibility?
oTo do the state’s main tasks:
Raise revenue
Conscript (protect borders)
Keep the peace
oIt is impossible to do that without knowing (need to know size, ages, professions
of population, how much is produced, how much land, etc.)
oSo what did they find?
The states found diverse community/villages, land, production methods,
lots of local dialects
Their answer? Remove all diversity
Power embedded in the way you measure anything
The View from the Center The View from Below
Capital cities Villagers
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