POL208 : Mid-Term Lecture Study Notes
3.Human Psychology: death instinct.
1.Social Identity Theory:
3.Waltz's critique: human nature is unchanging, war varies can’t explain something that’s changing w.
something that always remains the same
1.Byman: people have different traits, some have more / less aggression
2.Pollack: diverse individuals, diverse behaviours
Individual Humans (Leaders):
1.Individual Difference vs. Structure:
2.When do leaders matter?: when there are less constraints, when power is concentrated in their hands,
when systemic / domestic / bureaucratic forces conflict or are ambiguous, when circumstances are
1.Crises: situations where it depends on what you do / don't do.
1.Cuban Missile Crisis (Kennedy vs. General Curtis LeMay): Blockade vs. Airstrikes
and invading Cuba.
Modeling Leadership Behaviour: first image continued.
Personality: individuals patterns, how we act / think.
1.Psychobiography: look at individuals (dreams), pull out portrait of how they behave.
2.Personality Traits: neurotic, agreeableness, open-mindedness.
1.Motives: goals, desires, ambitions, psychological needs.
2.Cognition: beliefs, attitudes, convictions, complexity.
3.Temperament and disposition: extroversion, charisma, energy, emotional stability.
Generalizable Models: in a situation the leader will generally act like this.
1.Rational Choice: refers to procedural, not substantive rationality. Manner of selecting actions, not goals.
2.Bounded Rationality: limits in cognitive ability (7~2 pieces of information)
1.Satisficing: choosing the option that seems good enough as opposed to optimal.
1.Social Identity Theory
2.Analogy: how it is similar to another situation.
3.Habit: doing what you always do.
4.Stereotypes: categorizing situations to use in new situations.
3.Incrementalism: make decisions one at a time as opposed to working back from an end point.
3.Cognitive and Social Psychology:
1.Prospect Theory (Cognitive Psychology):
1.Risk adverse for gains, risk acceptant for losses: risk is when there is not 100%
certainty. Risk adverse when gains are involved. Risk acceptant when losses are