POL355Y5- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 55 pages long!)

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POL355Y5
Midterm EXAM
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Friday, September 8, 2017
POL355 Lecture 1: Introduction to the Course
(Conceptualizing Multiculturalism) — theories
surrounding the topic
TOPICS CONCERNING THIS LECTURE
What are the most common ways in which states respond to cultural diversity, and which of
these responses could we characterize as multiculturalist?
How are multiculturalist responses to diversity different from the principles of human rights
and liberalism embodied in contemporary liberal democracies?
What are the conceptual similarities / differences between the rights and protections that
different types of minority groups demand?
Multiculturalism - 3 definitions
1. Sociological reality (i.e. a fact) [DANGEROUS]
Examples —> our class, Canada
2. Political program (e.g. Canadian Multiculturalism Act, S. 27 of Canadian Charter) <— often
response to (1) [HEALTHY]
3. Philosophical outlook (interconnected and separated) <— how should we respond to (1) and
(2)?
*NOTE*: anti-multiculturalists (issue with number 1: practices of ethnic cleansing)
Canada is multiculturalist for many reasons (religions, cultures)
Declaring evil is not a sociological fact, rather a political standpoint
1. Multiculturalism: fact
Three main sources of diversity in Canada: (issues of self-identification when conducting
censuses)
Aboriginal groups (graph shows those that self-identifying Aboriginals) —> stigma of being
Aboriginal = “eroding” <— Canadian govt. apologizing for treatment of Aboriginals
“English Canada” & “French Canada” (Francophone population is shrinking across Canada,
but numbers don't suggest the following fact)
!1
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Friday, September 8, 2017
Immigration (Australia has people of different origins coming into country compared to
Japan) <— [birth rate is declining in Canada] (time of baby boom - birth rate increased
compared to 1991 and 2000 <— birth rate starting to decline)
2. Multiculturalism: political program
a) Royal Commission on Bilingualism & Biculturalism (1963-1969) <— retired judges / justices
to conduct extensive study for govt.
b) Multiculturalism declared as state policy (1971) <— conflict between Francophones &
Anglophones
c) Immigration Act (1976)
d) CCRF, Section 27 (1982) —> Multicultural Heritage (introduced in the Constitution of 1867)
“This Charter shall be interpreted in a manner consistent with the preservation and
enhancement of the multicultural heritage of Canadians.”
Passage is important because:
-Enshrined in constitution
!2
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