LIN100 Midterm Review.doc

15 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Mississauga
Arsalan Kahnemuyipour

examreviewINTRODUCTIONMISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT LINGUISTICSLANGUAGE1LINGUISTICS ARE OFTEN ASKED HOW MANY LANGUAGES DO YOU SPEAKlings arent fluent in many langsthey know alot of facts about diff langs and how to analyze lang data2LINGUISTICS WILL CORRECT YOUR GRAMMARRIGHT WAY TO USE LANGmodern lings are descriptivists and not prescriptivistsie they are interested in what the facts are and not what they should beprescriptivists tell you what you should dodescriptivists tell youtry to figure out what the rules are how people express themselves3SOME LANGS OR DIALECTS ARE SUPERIOR TO OTHERSthere is no rightwrong any lang or dialect is as good as any otherall varieties of a lang are rulegoverned according to their own grammarwhat is rulegoverned language has the rules and grammarwho determines rules no one product of the evolution of langrole of the linguist to analyzediscover the rules4SOME LANGS ARE HARDER TO LEARN THAT OTHERSrefers to foreign lang learning not first lang acquisitiondegree of difficulty depends on ones first lang and how closely the foreign lang is related to itall children whatever the language go through the same language development know the language by age 5LINGUISTICS scientific study of langLANGUAGE system of sounds words and sentence patterns used by humans to communicate thoughtsand feelingsSPEAKING VS WRITINGlings tend to work on spoken lang bcaeveryone learns spoken lang but there are illiterate pplbit does not require explicit teaching as opposed to writingcthere are human langs with no writing systemFACTORS WHEN WE KNOW A LANGUAGEPHONETICSPHONOLOGY knowledge of the sound system its inventoryrulesMORPHOLOGY knowledge of rules of word formationSYNTAX knowledge of rules of sentence formationSEMANTICS knowledge of the system of meanings1examreviewCOMPETENCE VS PERFORMANCECOMPETENCE enables speakers to use a finite set of rules to produce or comprehend an infinite number of sentences they have generally never heard before no limit on the length of the sentence largely subconscious acquired wo explicit teaching PERFORMANCE use of linguistic competence in the production and comprehension of langbehaviourWHY ARE LANGUAGES DIFFERENTnatural historical changehistorical linguisticsproduct of shaping speech to meet social and intellectual needscontact with ppl speaking other languages WHY ARE LANGUAGES SIMILAR of the many conceivable possibilities only a narrow band can be foundlanguage universalschomskyan view the possibilities are limited by universal grammar which is part of the biologically endowed language facultylinguistics assume that various human langs constitute a unified phenomenon and that the study of particular langs will reveal features of lang that are universalMORPHOLOGYMORPHOLOGY study of the structure of words and how they are formed LEXICON information is stored in the brains dictionaryKNOWING A WORDphonological info semantical info morphological info syntactic info pragmatic infoLEXICAL CATEGORIES MEANING nouns persons places or things adjectives qualities of nouns verbs describe actionsRELATED FORMS nouns take plural s adj take comparativesuperlative erestverbs take past ed progressive ing etcDISTRIBUTION nouns appear with aanthe adj with very verbs with canwill WORDS arbitrary pairing of sound and meaning de Saussure2
More Less

Related notes for LIN101H5

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.