Phonetics Quiz - study guide.docx

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Bridget Jankowski

Phonetics Quiz: Study Guide Hockett’s Design features of human language Productivity - Knowing a language means being able to produce and understand utterances never spoken before o Need to know rules of the language Displacement - We can refer to things that are not in the present moment (temporally of spatially: past/future, here elsewhere) o Animals can’t show displacement in their communication  E.g. cat can “tell” you he wants food, but not that he wants food in 1 hr. Arbitrariness - the relationship between a sound of sign representation of a concept in a language and the concept itself is arbitrary, there is no logical connection o Think of arbitrariness as more of a continuum than a binary Semanticity - specific signals can be matched with specific meanings. Words have meanings - iconicity: non-arbitrary relationship between form and meaning (e.g. no-smoking sign) o sound symbolism o onomatopoeia – not always the same in every language Duality of patterning - a large number of meaningful utterances can be recombined in a systematic way from a small number of discrete parts of language o each language has a finite # of discrete sounds which are recombined Discreteness - messages in the system are made up of smaller, repeatable parts rather than indivisible units - the sounds of our language are discrete o e.g. in English, the sounds “p” and “b” are discrete Cultural transmission - the language we speak is not genetically inherited Word Formation Imitation/ “Onomatopoeia” - Words like slurp and ding are imitative words also words for animal noises (baa, moo, woof, etc.) - designate a sound that is similar to the sound of the word itself Comment [SJ1]: Reduplication - formed by repeating a word usually w/ a change in one sound o E.g. hodgepodge, nitty-gritty, seesaw, knickknack, etc. Compound - created by combining two or more words to make a new word o e.g. airhead, slingshot, fork lift, slip-on - compounds sometimes written as single word, two words and sometimes with a hyphen between two parts - there is no general rule, have to consult dictionary if uncertain - compounds identifiable by pronunciation, heaviest stress on first element o phrasal stress is different with emphasis on final element Idiomatic phrase - compounds have unpredictable meanings o e.g. a blackboard is not necessarily black, nest egg not an egg, clotheshorse not a horse, a green thumb, - phrases with idiomatic meanings are called idiomatic phrases or lexicalized phrases o listed in the dictionary Acronym - words formed by combining first letter/ first part of each word in a phrase o two ways: series of letter names like UTM (e.g. of initialism) or as a word such as WASP (white Anglo-Saxon Protestant) Initialism - type of acronym usually consisting of a series of letters not pronouncable as a whole word (e.g. BBC, CNN, UTM) Shortening - also called “clipping” - words often shortened in conversation inconversation; some original long forms or w
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