-Intransitive verb can stand alone
-able to substitute the adverb (like, here, then or slowly)
Np+verb (to be)+adv (place or time)
Np+verb (linking verb)+adj
-Adj describes something about the subject
-Verb can be replaced by a form of “to be” without changing the meaning much
-Linking verbs: appear, become, seem, grow, prove, remain, turn, feel, look, taste, smell, sound
Np1+verb (linking verb)+np1
-The np always refers to the same person, place or thing as the subject noun phrase
--Noun phrase complement that refers to something or someone else other than the subject np
The indirect object transformation
Maria gave (a book) (to Sam) -> Maria gave (Sam) (a book)
NP2 PP NP2 NP3
Indirect objects and objects complement
The passive transformation
Monice ate (the pie) -> The pie was eaten (by Monica)
Uses of passive
Active: An Terrorist threw the bomb.
Passive: The bomb was thrown by a terrorist.
Different focus on the subject
Negative sentences transformation with auxiliary verbs
Peter will arrive early -> Peter will not (won’t) arrive early
Negative sentences transformation without an overt auxiliary verbs (insert “DO” and
She runs fast -> She does not (doesn’t) run fast
Interrogative sentence, yes/no question transformation
He hates durians -> Does he hats durians?
Interrogative sentence, Wh- question transformation Pied piping
I have three durians -> How many durians do I have?
She gave a gift to Peter -> Who did she give a gift to?
Indicative, used for situations that are the case or are not the case
He knows how to keep a secret.
Subjunctive, used for situations that are not real
It is very important that he know how to keep a secret
Imperative, used for commands
Know this: I will keep this a secret
Simple: one dependent clause
Compound: two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction (and, but, yet, nor,
Complex: At least on dependent clause. With the use of subordinating conjunction
Compound-complex: at least two independent and at least one dependent clause
Functions of subordinate clause
Adverbial: Can often move around the sentence, single adverb can replace the entire
She arrived home after the burglars left
Adjectival: relative pronouns (whom, whose, who, which, that) (when, where, why). After
I love cars that are made in Italy
Whoever comes to the party will be welcome.
-Relative pronoun can be deleted and