LIN205 Notes Final Exam

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Vedran Dronjic

Type 1 Np+verb (intransitive)+adv -Intransitive verb can stand alone -able to substitute the adverb (like, here, then or slowly) Type 2 Np+verb (to be)+adv (place or time) Type 3 Np+verb (linking verb)+adj -Adj describes something about the subject -Verb can be replaced by a form of “to be” without changing the meaning much -Linking verbs: appear, become, seem, grow, prove, remain, turn, feel, look, taste, smell, sound Type 4 Np1+verb (linking verb)+np1 -The np always refers to the same person, place or thing as the subject noun phrase Type 5 Np1+verb (transitive)+np2 --Noun phrase complement that refers to something or someone else other than the subject np The indirect object transformation Maria gave (a book) (to Sam) -> Maria gave (Sam) (a book) NP2 PP NP2 NP3 -MVP+IO+DO Indirect objects and objects complement The passive transformation Monice ate (the pie) -> The pie was eaten (by Monica) NP PP Uses of passive Active: An Terrorist threw the bomb. Passive: The bomb was thrown by a terrorist. Different focus on the subject Negative sentences transformation with auxiliary verbs Peter will arrive early -> Peter will not (won’t) arrive early Negative sentences transformation without an overt auxiliary verbs (insert “DO” and “NOT”) She runs fast -> She does not (doesn’t) run fast Interrogative sentence, yes/no question transformation He hates durians -> Does he hats durians? Interrogative sentence, Wh- question transformation Pied piping I have three durians -> How many durians do I have? Preposition stranding She gave a gift to Peter -> Who did she give a gift to? Indicative, used for situations that are the case or are not the case He knows how to keep a secret. Subjunctive, used for situations that are not real It is very important that he know how to keep a secret Imperative, used for commands Know this: I will keep this a secret Be there! Be quiet! Sentence Varieties Simple: one dependent clause Compound: two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction (and, but, yet, nor, for, so) Complex: At least on dependent clause. With the use of subordinating conjunction Compound-complex: at least two independent and at least one dependent clause Functions of subordinate clause Adverbial: Can often move around the sentence, single adverb can replace the entire clause She arrived home after the burglars left Adjectival: relative pronouns (whom, whose, who, which, that) (when, where, why). After a noun! I love cars that are made in Italy Nominal: Whoever comes to the party will be welcome. Relative clauses Restrictive: -Relative pronoun can be deleted and
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