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Midterm

JAL355H5 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: George Lakoff, Tag Question, Sociolinguistics


Department
Language Studies
Course Code
JAL355H5
Professor
Konnelly, L.
Study Guide
Midterm

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JAL355 Midterm Review
General Notes.
o Know the major concepts and how to apply them
o Know the differences with Gender and how it’s linguistically indexed
o What does it mean for Gender to be indirect?
o Verbal hygiene: a question of linguistic assumptions
o Language and Power: what is powerless language and how does it relate
to women’s language?
o Sociolinguistics variables: Eckert’s paper main points
o Gender patterns and styles of communication
o Focus on the basis of politeness
Review Notes.
Gender is treated as an ongoing project and language as a resource in the
pursuit of that project
According to Eckert and McConnell-Ginet
How do we define gender?
1. Gender is taught and enforced
2. Gender is collaborative
3. Gender is something we do
4. Gender is ideological and asymmetrical
5. Gender is relative, variable in time and place
6. Gender is a social construct enforced by cultural norms
Our beliefs about gender can define our sex
There are two types of difference between language and gender:
Gender-Exclusive Differences
Ex: language use between men and women
Gender-Preferential Differences
Ex: statistical distinction in the Tate of use of language by men and women
Robin Lakoff's Language and Women's Place is recognized as the first démenait
perspective on language and gender. Some claims state that:
there is a "women's language": how women talk and how they're talked
about
Ex: hedges, intensifiers, tag questions, etc
women's language is powerless and trivial
Thus, language works as a tool of oppression as speech is learned and imposed
on by societal norms
There are four approaches to language and gender:
1. Deficit Paradigm
Male as norm, women's language use deviates from the real thing

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Ex: women tend to break off without finishing their sentences because
they don't think out what they want to say
2. Difference Paradigm
Men and women's language are distinct (both equal)
Ex: There are different communicative styles, such as interruption (for
men it's more competitive) and different genders have different goals
o Difference is when women reclaim their distinctive cultural
traditions says Cameron
o The problem with the difference paradigm is that it ignores the role
of power, it has no account of why gender segregation exists,
erasure focuses on differences between genders and erases
differences within each group
3. Dominance Paradigm
Gender differences in language are rooted in social context of men's
dominance and women's oppression
Ex: language is a way of doing power in a face-to-face interaction,
according to West & Zimmerman
o Dominance is when women bears witness to oppression
o The problem with the dominance paradigm is that it treats male
dominance as monolithic, requires nuanced discussion of the
context of individual’s interactions, erasure still persists
4. Performative Paradigm
This is the approach we'll take in this course
Gender is something we do
Study of language that examines how linguistic features are deployed to
construct all kinds of personae (not just male and female)
Two key properties of the relation between language and gender as adapted
from Ochs (1992) are as follows:
Non-exclusive Relation: linguistic resources that index gender rarely only
index gender
Constitutive Relation: linguistic resources index social meanings which
in turn help to constitute gender meanings
In many languages, pronouns, concord and agreement exclusively and directly
index gender
o Ex: Arabic
Indirect indexing is seen in different languages, such as in Japanese sentence
final particles
Language uses us as much as we use language, meaning that the way we feel
about certain things governs the way we express ourselves
When it comes to language, there are two ways to look at its meaning:
o Denotation: the basic meaning of a word
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