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Dave Swanston

LEADERSHIP Leadership  Doing the right things  Focus on vision, mission, and goals Managers  Doing things right  Focuses on preserving the status quo  Efficency and effectiveness What Makes Leaders Great? Effective leadership- The ability of a leader to get high performance from his or her subordinates. 1. Self-awareness 2. Personal conviction 3. Courage 4. Creativity 5. Curiosity 6. Ability to inspire 7. Ability to listen 8. Ability to innovate 9. Eagerness to experience 10.Willingness to reflect 5 Perspectives of Effective Leaders: Power-Influence approach- attempts to explain leadership effec- tiveness in terms of the amount of power possessed by a leader, the type of power possessed, and how that power is used to influence others within the organization. Competency perspective (trait)- has tried to identify the traits and competencies of effective leader. Emotional Intelligence-  Self-awareness  Self-regulation  Empathy  Social skills  Motivation o Strategic thinking- The cognitive ability to analyze a complex situation, abstract from it, and draw conclusions about the best strategy for the firm to follow. o Power motivation- The unconscious drive to acquire status and power and to have an impact on others. o Charisma- The ability of some people to charm or influence others. o Emotional intelligence- The ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions. The key components of emotional intelligence are o Self awareness- —the ability to understand one’s own moods, emotions, and drives, as well as their effect on others. o Self regulation-—the ability to control or redirect disruptive impulses or moods and to think before acting. o Motivation- a passion for work that goes beyond money or status, and a propensity to pursue goals with energy and persistence o Empathy- understanding the feelings and viewpoints of subordinates, and taking those into account when making decisions. o Social Skills- —friendliness with a purpose. Transformational perspective- The transformational perspective suggests that effective leaders “transform” organizations through their vision, communication, and ability to build commitment to that vision among employees. Limitations & Implications of Competency Perspective-  Not all of the traits are equally important  Not all great leaders demonstrate all traits  Importance of traits is context dependent Behaviour Perspective-  Assumption- Certain leadership behaviours result in greater commitment on the part of subordinates and hence higher performance in pursuit of organization goals  People-oriented behaviour- A leadership style that includes showing mutual trust and respect for subordinates, demonstrating genuine concern for their needs  Task-oriented behaviour- The style of leaders who assign employees to specific tasks, clarify their work duties and procedures, ensure that they follow company rules, and push them to reach their performance capacity. The contingency perspective- argues that the appropriate behaviors for a leader to adopt depend on context, and that what works in some situations will not in others. There are three important contingency perspectives and they are Fiedler’s contingency theory, path-goal theory, and the leadership substitutes theory  Fiedler’s Theory - Fiedler’s basic assumption was that it was difficult if not impos- sible for people to change their leadership style. Fiedler accepted the two basic leadership styles we have just discussed (task- oriented and people-oriented), although he came up with his own way of measuring those styles. He believed that the effectiveness of a leader should be measured by how the team, group, or organization under the leader performed. o Weaknesses of Fiedler’s theory-  Simplistic  Classification into two broad types seems an unwarranted generalization  Division into people-oriented and task-oriented ignores the fact that some leaders can exhibit both  Unrealistic to “reward” an effective leader by removing him  Assumes that leaders cannot their style 3 Contingencies of Fiedler’s Theory: 1. Leader–member relations-How well followers respect, trust, and like their leaders. 2. Task Structure- The degree to which the jobs of subordinates are highly structured with clear work responsibilities, well- defined tasks, explicit goals, and specific procedures. 3. Position power-The power that derives from formal hierarchical power over subordinates, including the legitimate power to hire, fire, reward, and punish subordinates  Path-Goal Theory -path–goal theory is a contingency theory. It states that the best leadership style depends on the situation. Unlike Fiedler’s theory, path–goal theory is based on the as- sumption that leaders can change their style to match the situation. o Path goal theory describes 4 different leadership style  Directive leadership- Occurs when leaders tell subordinates exactly what they are supposed to do, giving them goals, specific tasks, guidelines for performing those tasks, and the like.  Supportive leadership- A leadership style in which the
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