Doing the right things
Focus on vision, mission, and goals
Doing things right
Focuses on preserving the status quo
Efficency and effectiveness
What Makes Leaders Great?
Effective leadership- The ability of a leader to get high performance from his or her
2. Personal conviction
6. Ability to inspire
7. Ability to listen
8. Ability to innovate
9. Eagerness to experience
10.Willingness to reflect
5 Perspectives of Effective Leaders:
Power-Influence approach- attempts to explain leadership effec- tiveness in
terms of the amount of power possessed by a leader, the type of power possessed,
and how that power is used to influence others within the organization. Competency perspective (trait)- has tried to identify the traits and
competencies of effective leader.
o Strategic thinking- The cognitive ability to analyze a complex situation,
abstract from it, and draw conclusions about the best strategy for the firm to
o Power motivation- The unconscious drive to acquire status and power and
to have an impact on others.
o Charisma- The ability of some people to charm or influence others.
o Emotional intelligence- The ability to monitor one’s own and others’
feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this
information to guide one’s thinking and actions. The key components of
emotional intelligence are
o Self awareness- —the ability to understand one’s own moods,
emotions, and drives, as well as their effect on others.
o Self regulation-—the ability to control or redirect disruptive
impulses or moods and to think before acting.
o Motivation- a passion for work that goes beyond money or status,
and a propensity to pursue goals with energy and persistence
o Empathy- understanding the feelings and viewpoints of subordinates,
and taking those into account when making decisions.
o Social Skills- —friendliness with a purpose.
Transformational perspective- The transformational perspective suggests
that effective leaders “transform” organizations through their vision,
communication, and ability to build commitment to that vision among employees.
Limitations & Implications of Competency Perspective- Not all of the traits are equally important
Not all great leaders demonstrate all traits
Importance of traits is context dependent
Assumption- Certain leadership behaviours result in greater commitment
on the part of subordinates and hence higher performance in pursuit of
People-oriented behaviour- A leadership style that includes showing
mutual trust and respect for subordinates, demonstrating genuine concern
for their needs
Task-oriented behaviour- The style of leaders who assign employees to
specific tasks, clarify their work duties and procedures, ensure that they
follow company rules, and push them to reach their performance capacity.
The contingency perspective- argues that the appropriate behaviors for a
leader to adopt depend on context, and that what works in some situations will not
in others. There are three important contingency perspectives and they are
Fiedler’s contingency theory, path-goal theory, and the leadership substitutes
Fiedler’s Theory - Fiedler’s basic assumption was that it was difficult
if not impos- sible for people to change their leadership style. Fiedler
accepted the two basic leadership styles we have just discussed (task-
oriented and people-oriented), although he came up with his own way of
measuring those styles. He believed that the effectiveness of a leader
should be measured by how the team, group, or organization under the
o Weaknesses of Fiedler’s theory-
Classification into two broad types seems an unwarranted
Division into people-oriented and task-oriented ignores the fact
that some leaders can exhibit both
Unrealistic to “reward” an effective leader by removing him
Assumes that leaders cannot their style
3 Contingencies of Fiedler’s Theory:
1. Leader–member relations-How well followers respect, trust, and like their
2. Task Structure- The degree to which the jobs of subordinates are highly
structured with clear work responsibilities, well- defined tasks, explicit goals,
and specific procedures.
3. Position power-The power that derives from formal hierarchical power
over subordinates, including the legitimate power to hire, fire, reward, and
punish subordinates Path-Goal Theory -path–goal theory is a contingency theory. It states
that the best leadership style depends on the situation. Unlike Fiedler’s
theory, path–goal theory is based on the as- sumption that leaders can
change their style to match the situation.
o Path goal theory describes 4 different leadership style
Directive leadership- Occurs when leaders tell
subordinates exactly what they are supposed to do, giving
them goals, specific tasks, guidelines for performing those
tasks, and the like.
Supportive leadership- A leadership style in which the