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MGM101H5 Final: MGM105H5 Final Exam Study Guide

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Dave Swanston

UTM -MGM105H5- Final Exam Study Guide MGM101: Lecture 1: An Introduction to Management(Dave Swanston)  Article   EU Reps admit that the $14.5 Billion Apple Tax Bill was Political   o “European Commission denies that its shock demand that Apple hand 13 billion euros in  back taxes to Ireland is in the pungent phrase of Apple CEO Tim Cook, “total political  crap”(Fortune, 2016)  o Story about implications on apple and other companies  o How could this affect other businesses and their shareholders?  o 2015: Apple made profit of $53 billion dollars, if the tax implications are higher on them it  would have a severe impact on their businesses  o They make $1700 profit every sec, make billions every week, sales over $230 billion dollars:  this data shows Apple pays little to no tax which affects moral and competitions in the  market  o Unfortunately, these days businesses have not paid their fair share of taxes and that impacts  other businesses progress  o This is why it is important for future leaders and businesses to run businesses in an  important ethical manner  o Canada is one of the wealthiest and best places in the world and still going through poverty  (theres 1 in 4 people going through poverty)  Tips   There is NO wrong answer so feel free to share important ideas and opinions on subject  matter    Articles are key to remember for each test as it is a great way of applying knowledge,  looking at complexity of management making    Important to know about Brexit    Read textbook   Past articles studied:   Volkswagen scandal widen:  o  manipulated emissions testing to show they were not going above CO2 emissions   Canadian Tire Corp’s work on its brand pays off with profit up 20%    Bier Market’s skimpy dress code called exist and discriminatory    Are corporations losing their moral compass?:   o Should business meet their taxes and avoid meeting regulatory standards   Pacific rim trade deal reignites economic election issue  o how does it affect businesses in global economies and their environment   Who’s in Cabinet: Trudeau and member team sworn in  o how our government is diverse and consists of minorities, but raises the issue if having  that position is good if they are not qualified for the job   The problem with Donald Trump popularity and our obsession with narcissistic leaders   o if he gets elected what are the global implications of this?    Course Outline:    Be sure to review pdf for course outline of MGM101 as it will help keep track of test dates and  which chapter to study before lecture    MGM101: Lecture 2: What is Business?    What is a manager? :    Helps run organization   Someone who can implement change   Leadership motivation   Controls allocated definition   Has vision to achieve goals   Uses resources   Running the company on the owner’s behalf   Entrepreneurial skills   Maintaining Systems   “Managers are responsible for making decisions about the allocation of scarce resources  through strategic objectives”(Swanston, 2016)  What makes someone an effective manager? :   Effective managers make better decisions more often   Allocating resources is important – physical resources, etc.   We want resources in the most effective, beneficial way   Every business has different goals and objectives   What works for one organization wont work for other organizations   Its important to DEVELOP a STRATEGY   Once you have a strategy/goal, that will guide you in how you want to run your business   There is no ONE strategy   Have to make decisions that are consistent with strategy  Managers’ Roles Are Evolving New Approaches: Why? :   Global Competition  o Business may be done somewhere else  o Increases the size and strength of competition  o Places new demands on management   Business Scandals  o When Businesses do something wrong, it becomes hard to cover it up due to their  global exposure to environments   o Great reason of transparency, accountability which has changed the way management  has conducted them as they do it in a more respectful manner   o Therefore, Business practices are changing for the better because they are being  exposed more easily these days    Constant Change   o Businesses are in a constant rate of change  o As soon as managers make decisions, they will have to make new ones in a year from  now because Businesses have changed  o Have to use to uncertainty and getting through those situations    Better Educated workers  o Smaller pools of uneducated workers who can do certain jobs that places don’t have  enough spots to fill  o Proves to be a problem as there is no shortage of work for jobs like janitors   o This is different from a job such as an Accountant which becomes more demanding and  competitive due to the number of applicants applying for a high paying job   Downsizing/Rightsizing   o We are constantly finding ways to increase productivity, do more with less resources,  therefore creating the need for organizations to have all employees contribute   Functions of Management:   Planning and Strategizing  o Once we create plans and put them in place, we strategize and allocate resources and  put them towards achieving the plan   Organizing  o Putting together your plans and deciding which one to act one first with allocated  resources   Leading and Developing  o Gathering your group of workers and directing them to achieve organization goal,  involves developing skills they already have further   Controlling  o Motivating employees through initiatives and getting the task done  Types of Managers:   General Managers/CEOs – oversee functional managers, and they oversee everything meaning  these managers have to have skills in certain areas    Functional Managers – in charge of functional area/division/office/sees managers   Frontline Managers – responsible for business unit/sees non managers(frontline employees)  Stakeholders (Employees, customers, creditors, shareholders, suppliers, distributors, etc.):   General Public(Employees, Customers, Creditors)   Government(Employees, Distributors, Suppliers)   Local Communities (Creditors, Shareholders, Suppliers)   Sometimes stakeholders priorities increase and decrease based on demand  o Know your stakeholders and whats important to them    “How CAE wants to make the world safer by stimulating disaster both in the air and the operating  room?”:   Why “simulation” is an important tool   Talks about CAE – a company that started off aviation roots/ Has become a dominant market  leader with great reputations    A lot of training was done in the past on actual patients, around 300 ppl died worldwide because  of medical mistakes    CAE looked at that and said there were a lot of similarities, when mistakes happen in the  medical business disaster can strike similarly to aviation industries which is why it important to  be prepared and have actual training    Management is all about knowing how NOT to follow the rules because if you come across  situations the rules don’t tell you how to handle, you need to be able to think outside the box  and be prepared for them   CAE’ value proposition  o Must invent in stimulators so medical personal will be better at their job   people will rely on them more    What type of benefits does CAE provide to their target market?  o Cost‐benefit   What does the asset? Whats going to be the ongoing cost of operating it?   Improve productivity, measure cost, allows us to explore future benefits    With CAE, since tech is more developed and the system is more complex we  don’t know how effective the medical personnel will be as mistakes will be  subjugated to potential law suits along with other costs  o Service Benefit   you can come up with a medical disease and practice how to diagnose that on a  stimulator   Explores situation that personnel may or may not get to practice in real  life(Service benefit)  might be more prepared for different situations    Therefore, Value Proposition(an innovation, service, or feature intended to make a company  or product attractive to customers) is a good example of strategic planning     How does the article relate to readings? What does the article tell me? What questions does the  article raise? – to keep in mind when studying for tests and exams***    What is Businesses?:   A system of integrated mission‐based actions  o Designing system based procedures to achieve organization objectives and goals   Develop and grow markets for its goods and services  o Could be for new products and services   Create organizational value(wealth) on behalf of its stakeholders  o Sustainable management is about creating wealth now and in the future  o If we don’t look after our employees, we wont have employees for very long especially  when we don’t have a relationship with suppliers and businesses  o Shows why we have to take care of the need of our stakeholders    Ultimately, to be successful we have to supply products and services to a market that desires  them  o If we have a great idea nobody wants, nobody will invest in the business/model  Factors of Production:   Assets + Labour +Capital + Managerial Acumen = Business Model Composition   As managers, our job is to recognize environment and evaluate and identify opportunities that  exist and take advantage of those opportunities when needed   Business:    Role of business manager/owner is to recognize, anticipate, and sense an opportunity to create  a product/service that is unique, important and of meaningful value to targeted customer(s)   Strategy = The specific objectives an organization hopes to achieve during the planning cycle   3 C’s = Capabilities, Competencies, Capacity   Competitive Advantage:   If we put our assets together, we can achieve competitive advantage  o Makes us better than competing organizations  Fundamental Objectives of Business (3):   Short Term Profit – important in maintaining sustainability    Long Term Growth and Profitability   Social and Environmental Responsibility     Five Benefits:   Emotional Benefits   Brand Benefits   Service Benefits   Product Benefits   Cost Benefits   The company with the greatest value wins    Exercise:  “Who is the target market and what is the value proposition offered by the following firms?”    Cheerios   Target Market – families, healthy people (lol)   Value Proposition – healthy/organic, easy to eat, will literally   Lucky Charms   Target Market – kids & families, children, adults (vintage cereal)   Value Proposition – their charms/marshmallows, different colour, sweet, price (cheaper), brand  logo/packaging (colourful, exciting)   Fuel    Target Market – healthy/active people, muscular male audience   Value Proposition ‐  an innovation, service, or feature intended to make a company or product  attractive to customers                MGM101: Lecture 3 - What is Business? Article - LGM Financial Services CEO Adam Hill believes helping others is good for business ● LGM is business to business(sells to another business) ● Hill helping employees makes them believe and trust him ○ He encourages feedback from his employees, not just one way ● Some people say its a waste of productivity, say that its a waste of four days ● If the company pays the employees to “volunteer” in areas they are interested in, it strengthens the bond between company and employee ● An employee can have the best qualifications but if their personal goals dont line up with the company's personal goals then they might not make the best fit ○ An organization prefers someone with marks as well as extra-curriculars rather than just simply grades ● Hill created value of proposition through hiring best people possible ○ Some managers are just focused on productivity by any means (getting work done) ○ Manager focus on what is expected of them ○ The world needs more managers like Hill; will lead to organizations being more successful ○ People dont buy what you sell, they buy why you sell Major Branches in the classical approach to management ● Industrial revolution brought about major change by changing the way people run businesses ● Managers have to think about compensation, resources when hiring employees ○ As more people got involved, there was need for change in demand for managers ○ Looked for ways to do this more effectively to gain competitive advantage, value propositions, etc. ● Classical Approaches: Assumptions: people are rational ○ Scientific Management ; Frederick Taylor ■ Designing work systems to be efficient ■ Job specialization ■ Doing one job and being good at it; output increase ■ With so many employees and people, we needed to create levels of management ○ Administrative Principles; Henri Fayol ■ Thinking about how we coordinate activities ■ About creating systems and procedures as well as documenting them ■ Design, implement and manage an organization to achieve profit ■ People are rational, people are gonna be motivated and work hard ○ Bureaucratic organization; Max Weber ■ a form of management that has a pyramidal command structure ■ Very organized hieracrchy ● People are rational and driven by economic concerns Foundations in the behavioural or human resource approaches to management ● Organizations as communities: Mary Parker Follet ● Theory X and Y: Douglas Mcgregor ○ Theories of human motivation ○ Theory X: lazy, motivated by rewards ○ Theory Y: good management practices, motivated and dedicated to making organization a success ● Personality and organization: Chris Argyris ○ Organizational learning and impact on company goals ● Theory of Human Needs: Abraham Maslow ○ What needs need to be fulfilled in order to help employee and organization be a success ● Hawthorne studies; Elton Mayo ○ Different people perform under different circumstances ○ Employees were happy in a comfortable working environment where their values were cared about ○ Increased moral Foundations for continuing developments in management ● Quantitative analysis and tools ○ Using data and analysis to manage organization sector or goals ● Systems view of organizations ○ Applying systems theory to management and how to proceed in a business ● Contingency thinking ○ No best way to organize a company , lead or make a decision ○ All happens based on the situation ● Commitment to quality ○ Higher expectations ○ Global competition to deliver superior quality products ○ Very hard to be competitive, even if you are successful in the short term that leaves a gap in the marketplace ○ Firms have to deliver quality products ● Learning organizations ○ No organization is perfect, they have to go through consistent learning steps to improve ○ The best organizations are learning organizations ■ How can we do things better? ■ How can we learn from our mistakes? ● Evidence-based management ○ Dont do things based on gut feelings Attributes of a 21st Century Manager ● Global strategist - understanding the interconnections among nations, cultures, and economies ● Master of Technology - comfortable with information technology ● Inspiring leader - attracting and motivating workers to achieve high-performance culture ● Model of ethical behaviour - acting ethically in all ways Simulation Follow-Up ● Register asap otherwise penalties will be inflicted ● Finish your decision by 9 pm wednesday otherwise it will be considered as incomplete(0%) ● Make sure you click advance after making each decision ● No exceptions ● Develop a plan to help you make a decision with your groups in simulation ● Cannot make a decision unless everyone in group is registered ● Give thoughts to your team name so the strategy will be successful ○ Run it like its a real business ● Every round there will be an incident in which you will have to make a decision on(i.e. Option A or B) ○ Whatever decision you made should be consistent with your strategy Midterm ● Next Wednesday ● 30 minutes long ● 15 multiple choice, ● 3 short answers ● Covers everything from lectures to class readings ● Chapter 1 to 4 ● Provide examples and apply your knowledge ● Must write in the registered section ● Good luck! MGM101 – Lecture 4 – Corporate Social Responsibility Milan CEO defends EpiPen cost to angry lawmaker  EpiPen ; steroid injection for people going through major shock, adrenaline for people with severe allergies  Increased price of Epipen by over $600 o How does this affect you as a shareholder?  Make more money  Affects public = more consequences  20% of Milans profits making Epipen a significant product for the company o Will shareholders care about ethics if it doesn’t affect their share price?  Important to know what the shareholders want  If shareholders are personally affected by this  Epipen controls 90% of the market shares for medicine o Governments regulating industry could affect everyone in terms of shares  How do people get away with this activity? o Sure, its fine now but once it makes the news all shareholders will be put at risk o Affects demands for shares if you decide to act in an unethical manner; other people might not want to invest in market due to the increased risks  Only a small % actually makes the market but when it does get sold, you take care of all the pricing required to cover this drug? o If one is a wealthy individual do they care? Will it affect them?  Governments are very involved in research, because they are focused on what will create a revenue for them  Would you want your family to know about this if you the CEO? Think about how this could affect your personal life as well  There are many examples of this happening all over the world Corporate Social Responsibility  An important part of management  As a manager, you have to make decision. The criteria you chose to make decisions will lead to responsible decision making  Companies operate in a dynamic environment o We benefit from those communities and get resources from them such as natural resources and equipment o Used to generate products and services to communities in order to gain capital for growth o Businesses gain from society and good CSR is a way of getting back to the public  CSR is understanding we as a company have a responsibility to do things for the benefit of stakeholders o Argument: giving up profit to do things for stakeholders? o Could be bad CSR o We could still do things in a responsible ethical manner and still be profitable  Some examples o Activities that aren’t environmental in nature o Fair pay o Yahoo confirms huge data breach affecting 500 million accounts o Top Trudeau aides Butts, Telford expensed over $200 K for moving homes  Taxpayers paid $200000 for two people just so they could move  Nobody gets this unless you’re a top high ranking official o A textile company had products; PetroPeru confirms sixth spill of the year(check out this article for more info*)  When Joe fresh factory collapsed, workers fell; the blame was put on the company  Joe Fresh took responsibility for this failure to secure its suppliers and shareholders’ Sustainability – The Three Spheres of Sustainability  Socioenvironmental o Environment Justice o Natural Resources Stewardship o Locally and Globally  Environmental o rates of renewable resource harvest, pollution creation, and non-renewable resource depletion that can be continued indefinitely. Not sustainable otherwise  Environmental Economic o economics of natural resources from both sides - their extraction and use, and the waste products returned to the environment.  Economic-Social o *** Next Week -> Forms of Business Ownership  P.S. keep in mind to fill in decisions for simulations  They are due by 9pm  Discuss Round 2 results MGM101: Lecture 5 – Forms of Business Ownership  Article: “Should Your Start‐up take the B Corp Route?”   “Some make a corporate commitment to a social responsibility by organizing their business as a  B corp with a mission to do good written into governing documents”    What would motivate an organization to become a B corp?  o Name becomes more respected and attracts mre employees to join  o Different strategy which will affect the way stakeholders will look at them  o Be more visually appealing for customers    Becoming a Bcorp means that you will do things in a manner favorable to government standings  which will make you stand out in the market    If it helps us attract customers, why aren’t all organizations becoming Bcorps?  o Because of higher cost  o Getting certified, might be cost‐prohibited as they do not have enough resources  o Investors may not think a Bcorp will be as possible so they will choose a business that  earns them more money through investing    Bcorps change the way one does business  o Could become more responsible and ethical, which would increase the chances of them  being successful in the long‐term  o A food service firm that provide free meals to schools has trouble providing because of  shortage of employees   o Businesses involved in bcorp activites have a brighter future b/c they are establishing  strong network and markets which gives them competitive advantage over non ecorp  companies   o They are not focused on the short term  o Bcorps aren’t a different type of corporation(i.e. a C‐corp can do all the same things  such as being responsible, ethical, etc.) but being a Bcorp sends a message to the  market and stakeholders of how committed you are   Article #2: “Coworking spaces free small businesses from office trouble shooting”   Talks about borrowed workspace  o What kind of organization would be interested in this type of service that provides  workspace for other businesses?   Professional organizations where people work separately; at many times they  have their own organization   Organizations who find it beneficial if you want to work with other businesses  and earn additional profit    Small businesses who don’t have the size or resources to have their own  workspace    Gives them the perception size and credibility; how much capacity they  have to own their own resources   A lot of Small businesses would be inclined to use the services shared  offices would offer    Forms of business ownership leads to talk about small business structures   So You Want to Start a Business?   What business form makes the most sense?   Consider issues of cost, risk, control, legal, administration, and flexibility   o Some structures such as organizations are easy to maintain vs corporations which are  difficult to maintain due to reasons like control  Forms of Ownership   Corporation(69%)(Legal Entity)  o Owned by 1 person   o No difference in legal structure  o Differences present in how these businesses are managed   o A corporation is its own legal entity and not of the owners   The money earned goes to business   Therefore, the businesses and owners are separate entities    Separate owners have different shares in one organization(i.e. an organization  could have 3‐5 business owners which get a share through activities of the  business)    If a business offers you a car, then it is the businesses car that you use for  business purposes, you must pay tax to use it for other purposes such as on a  day where you don’t have work    You could charge the business for using the car for businesses purposes   o Much greater risk in owning a business, because if someone in your organization does  an unethical act, the blame goes on the organization and you in particular  o When businesses make a profit, through dividends they will pay their taxes to  government and if there is still some money they may keep it for the business and or  give it to the owners based on shares   o Sometimes owners pay themselves for the business if being the only member as  businesses have no obligation to payback   It is an expense to the business but your earning income that way  o Understanding differences between legal entities such as owners and corporations is  ethical    How do owners earn money?  1) Sell shares at a higher price  2) Dividends – after paying their expenses, the money left is profit/ take some of that money  and give it to the owners based on how many shares an owner has  3) If you own/run your own business, you have your own salary  4) The more shares you earn, the more votes you get which means more influence on the  company, and you can put yourself in the board of directors   o Limited Liability – any claim against business are only claims against what those  businesses owns/if that company goes bankrupt, the only money that people can get  are what the business generates   Types of Corporations   Private – not traded on any stock exchange  o Limited to 50 or fewer stockholders   Public: shares are traded on one or more stock exchanges   Non‐Profit: performs public service, has special tax considerations to encourage formation  o Chapman’s Ice Cream is a private corporation, started in 1973 by David and Penny  Chapman   How Owners Affect Management   Owners/stockholders  o Elect board of director’s   Board of directors  o Hire officers   Officers  o Set corporate objectives and select managers   Managers  o Supervise employees   Employees  Where the accountability lies?   When activities of the business go well, higher position people are happy but if something bad  happens they blame it on lower positions   The blame however will still go to the higher position people as they hired these officers,  managers and employees   Camada’s Largest Corporations   Consists of mostly energy companies such as Suncor Energy inc  Sole Proprietorship (24%)   Combining ownership + entity together creating a Combined Personal and Business   No difference in business and personal taxes  o Benefit: money leftover is personal income(i.e. if you made 10 k cutting grass and 9000  on other resources, on your personal income you get the additional $1000  Partnership (4.5%)   There are two main types of partnerships:  o General Partnership  o Limited Partnership   There are two main types of partners:  o General Partner – someone involved in money and business  o Limited Partner – will contribute money to the business that allows general partners to  run the business   Getting partners meaning you might me really good at certain strength but you can combine  those strengths  o Leads to sharing a risk as well as share responsibilities, decision making and control   o Benefit: direct involvement and control in whats going on  New Forms of Partnership   Master Limited Partnership  o Traded publicly  o Taxed as a partnership   Limited Liability Partnership  o Building the firm  o You get a share of the profit based on your partnership   o If limited liability partnership make money, other partners get share of that money  which is why you have legal rulings in place   Mergers and Acquisitions   One entity is buying the other   Whats the difference between mergers and acquisitions   o Mergers – combining one company with another thus forming a partnership to serve a  main purpose or goal  o Acquisition – one company buying the other, achieving complete control(i.e. WWE  buying WCW in 1999)    Vertical    Horizontal   Conglomerate   Leveraged buyout(LBO)  Franchises   Acquiring rights to use firms business model  o i.e. You cant just start your own Mcdonalds, you would have to go to Mcdonalds and ask  them to buy their franchise in a possible location  o Not only do you buy it but you have to pay 5% of the money you make owning that  franchise   o You haave certain limits, but ultimately it is your business to run    “A franchise agreement is an arrangement whereby someone with a good idea for a  business(the franchisor) sells the rights to use the business name and to sell a good or  service(the franchise) to others(the franchise) in a given territory”(Swanston, 2016)   “This is key as some people are not comfortable with starting their own business and would  rather join a business in a franchise agreement”(Swanston, 2016)  Co‐operatives   Owned by the members   Pay no income taxes   Profits are shared amongst members   Co‐workers, farmers, fisherman, consumers are all examples of co‐ops that band together to  form a co‐op in the first place   o i.e. Mountain Equipment Co‐op is Canada’s largest retailer co‐operative  MGM101: Lecture 6: The Business Environment    Today’s Agenda     Article Discussion – Manufacturing sales up to 0.9 percent in August, surpassing expectations   o Discusses how Canadian manufacturing sales improved and boosted expectation for a  rebound in the economy   Stats Canada reported that sales increased 0.9 percent to $511 billion    Fueled by higher sales of food primary metal and petroleum and coal  products(Wong, 2016)  o Why is tracking manufacturing sales important to us as a business?   Has an impact on our overall economic activity    Different manufacturing centres increase/decrease at a different rate and there  have a less relationship or impact in our businesses   We want to know what the change was sectors such as food  manufacturing    This is important because as conditions change, it results in a change of  balance(win‐lose situation with stakeholders)  o i.e. good for manufacturers because their income is increasing  but affects customers more because they are spending more   o i.e. $100 US vs $100 Canada   Benefit when the dollar goes down for customers   When the dollar goes up it reduces our competition  level   Ie. If Canadians keep buying products at $100, it wont  affect the manufacturer, but if the dollar goes up then it  will be tougher for the manufacturer to buy parts for  the product if he or she is buying from the U.S.   Each business is affected differently based on risk and  cost    real life example: In 2008, our dollar went from  .68 to 10 cents up     destroyed  Canadian manufacturing base and  reduce our competivity by making them less  effective    Once the exchange rate changed, the  businesses who were not efficient, productive  and competitive were exposed to problems    As soon as the dollar depreciated, it made  Canadian companies that relied on exporting  got shut down because they weren’t as good as  the international companies   Didn’t have time to react to the significant  change in the dollar   o The reason why Canadian exports are not going up is because we are also competing  with Mexico who has currency depreciation(their peso is also cheaper)   Major contributing factors that impact overall economic development   Bank of Canada o Its fundamental responsibility is to develop and manage the monetary p0licies and financial systems associated with canadas economic activity o Influences or exchange rate by increasing/decreasing amount of currency available o Have one of the most powerful centres in the world; as they were not as exposed and were stable o Canadas economy was able to outperform many of the economies of the world due to their very stable system o Decentralization leads to more competition o Centralization is good for control purposes but leads to inefficiencies  Has the following core areas of responsibility: o managing inflating and currency supply o if inflation gets too high; BOC decides to reduce interest rates; leads to less borrowing of money o If there is recession and they want to increase more economic activity; the BOC will reduce the borrowing rate which will enable economic activity and therefore give people a kick start o developing and managing financial systems and safe guards o providing fund management services to chartered banks o Interest rate adjustment is its primary weapons in controlling inflationary pressures in the short term  Chartered Banks are financial institutions regulated under the Bank of Canada o Four pillars of economic activity:  Economic activity = total of  Expenditures (things we spend money on and consume)  + Savings  + Investment – if economic conditions are good, you make investment now; if theyre not we wait for the right time to make the investment so that incase we borrow money we can pay it back  Greece example: borrowed too much, their GDP crashed causing them to not be able to pay any of it back  Put the whole country in distress as their bank system was disrupted  + Credit o    What constitutes economic activity  o Four pillars of Economic Activity    Economic Activity = Expenditures + Savings + Investment(If economic conditions  are good, you make the investment now; if theyre not we wait for the right time  to make investment so we don’t put ourselves at risk
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