Semester 1 PHL105 Notes - Brunning

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Diana Raffman

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Philosophy Lecture November 2, 2009 Cosmological Arguments Accepts the principle of Sufficient reason There must be an explanaton (a) of the existence of any being, and (b) of the existence of any positive fact whatever. The argument: 1) is valid 2) is it sound? Clarke has a different justification Clarke's argument: 1. Every being that exists or ever did exist is iether a contigent (dependent) being or a necessary being. ( everything in the world that existed now, has existed before) D(contigent) v Necesserary(independent) > always will exist (wasnt produced or created by anyone 2. not every being can be contingent (dependent) being. 3.) therefore there exists a necessary being, called God. Premise 1: justified by PSR (a) Premise 2: Justified by PSR (b) Question:Is this argument sound? SUMMARY: 1) beings can be D(contingent) or Necessary (independent) 2) Not every being exist can be dependent 3) threfore there exist at least one independent WHY ARE TEHRE DEPENDENT BEINGS? Explanations are things that asnwer WHY? We have to presuppose, assume that the world is intelligent. Philosophy class LECTURE november 4, 09 First essay explication section if you may if you so choose, give a critical oppinion. CRITICAL ANALYSIS exposition is not a summary, not a book report, it is giving main argument or main conclusion or a reason in which the. EXPOSISTION IS SHORT! CRITICAL JUDGEMENT what is the most important thing? Good exposition is just a good sentence. Short exposisition is NEVER a summary. When reading a philosophy article make sure you can re-write it in your own words, never in the words of the author COSMOLOGICAL ARGUMENT a) P1 everything is iether dependent or self-sufficient b) P2 not verything can be dependent PSS principle of sufficient reason a) every being b) explanation of every being objections to argument: 1) treats the collection of dependednt beings as if it were dependent being 2) makes an incorrect inference 3) once each dependent is being explained, there is nothing left to explain. PSR C1 explanation for each member, each individual C2 explanantion for why there are any Arguments FOR God things that exist Things that exist Tings that DNE dogs unicorns mars Philosophy tutorial november 6, 09 Paley's argument -its a live argument (people still talk about it now) 2 things watch was complex has parts, very precise, has goal or purpose all these characteristics needs explanation (what explanation does it have why its there?) IT WAS MADE BY HUMANS! Aliens! Paley said theres an AGENT that made that, theres no natural reason Stone its simple, precise, no goal, basic (natural explanation) what if you find a heart shape, what is the explantion for this heart shape? Natural explanation random/accidental, no goal, ie erosion. Plaey said 1)theres an infinite chain of watch, the watch now was from before and the one from before and so on. Machine that makes another machine that makes the next machine. 2) there has to be an agent that made the first watch. Machine that Regress: there should be a first cause , or a thing should come from another thing and that very first thing is the independent thing. Its like a hanger hangs from something and other hanger is hanged from another hanger and so on. Tehre no RANDOM chance that such a complicated thing was mde random. The argument. The simple thing (rock) dont need an explnation the more complex thing (watch) needed a designer. (some one had to have the blue print) the more more complex thing (plants, humans) needed an agent to have designed or made it. Counter argument. -You dont need to know how the watch are being made -you dont need to know the parts of the watch and the functions of the watch -humans are hallucinating, watch is still a watch, were just taught to see it as a watch -watch doesnt have to work or have its goal, even if the thing is not as effective, or does not do its function, it does not matter, tehre was still an agent who made it THERE MUST BE A DESIGNER PHILOSOPHY LECTURE November 9, 09 Before class Exist DNE Dogs Fountain of youth Empire state building unicorns mars The abominable snowman Circle square Contingent things things on the on side of the table that COULD HAVE been on the other side Impossible things thing on the right side that COULD NOT have been on the left side necessary things things on the left side of the line that COULD NOT have been on the right side possible things Anselm: anything that you thing that does not exist still exists in UDERSTANDING. IN CLASS: Ontological Argument: Key concepts: 1. Existence in the understading you have a concept of it, its a possible being 2. Existence in reality 3. God is that being which none greater in conceivable (thinkable/ possible) 4. Existence in reality is a great making quality (ie a perfection) existence in understanding are possible could be contingent or necessary 4 concept: existence in reality is PERFECTION exist in reality exist in understaning exist in understand COULD exist in reality something that is in existence in understanding that could be in existence in reality is missing somethings, Perfection
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