PHL105 Notes Sem 2 - J. Brunning

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Diana Raffman

Philosophy Class Notes Semester 2 Jan 4, 2010 Epistemology -the science of TO KNOW -it is the claim how to know something -well look at question of TRUTH -well look at JUSTIFICATION -difference between knowledge and belief Knowledge Claims 1. I know my friend John very well knowledge by acquaintance, requires more than a description, direct contact, some kind of familiarity simply cant be capture just by talking, familiarity with objects, OBJECT knowledge 2. I know how to speak English Competence knowledge/ skill knowledge 3. I know that UTM is in Mississauga- very special, I know that is followed by fact/proposition or a statement that can be T or F, propositional knowledge, PROPOSITION is either true of false, Philosophers are interested on this. Focus on next 6 weeks is claim on propositional knowledge Ex. S is person, P is proposition/statement/sentence, either T or F 1. S knows that P -necessary sufficient conditions a. S believes P Believes = Psychological certainty is a function of the subject It VARIES b. P is True 1.has to be Public and objective its not a private thing 2. Independent of how many believe it 3. has to be eternal it has to be properly INDEXED (time, year, location, etc) c. S is justified in holding P set the bar high by saying P is certain ie Probability of (P) is 1 > HIGHEST if its Very Probable how high are we going to set the probability 3 is epistemic certainty, it is justified if you have REASONS how tight the connections are WEDNESDAY bottom number pg 141,142,143,144,145, short 3 page article, brain in a vat. There is a philosophical point lol Lecture 2 January 6, 2010 1. Knowledge by Acquaintance direct and personal 2. Competence Knowledge - ability to perform a skill eg. I know how to swim 3. Propositional Knowledge most basic kind of knowledge that we have S (person) knows that P(proposition) Proposition is the idea or concept that a statemet expresses. Proposition are the beares of truth. Proposition thought content, bearers of truth Statement the way you say it B. Necessary and sufficient conditions for Knowledge: A (person) knows that P (proposition) 1. P is True 2. S believes that P 3. S is justified in holding P Knowledge include believing Beliefs dont give you knowledge Problem of justification how much should you know to JUSTIFY? Certain = probability = 1 Justified belief does not always count as knowledge Descarte method is justify is FOUNDATIONAL METHOD Truth is objective. We dont want truth as subjective. Once something is true, its always true. Something IS true even if its not believed in < THE GOAL! Theories of Truth 1. Correspondence theory: A belief is true if it asserts a Proposition (P) that corresponds to the facts. Problems: a) What are facts? b) How can a proposition correspond to facts (stats of affairs in the world)? P is true if it corresponds to the facts Something is true of it fits the facts but, what are facts? An event is not a fact, an object is not a fact, theres infinite number of fact. Something is true if the facts match the proposition If youre a correspondece theory 1. Justify facts, 2 match something that you cant see Statements have to be pictures of proposition. 2. Coherence Theory: A proposition is true if it coheres with a system of other propositions. A true proposition is true by virtue of its legitimate membership in a system whose individual parts are related to each other by logical necessity. Beliefs are arranged in a very intricate web. Problems: A) How many systems can a proposition cohere? B) Will a proposition be true with one system and false for another - we might find someones else belief conflict with ours. Our beliefs may not cohere with each other What criteria to use to decide if something is true. Coherence is an ultimate test of truth. Why am I not at home, because I believe that I am in a classroom that I am with people, that there is a teacher in front of me. 3. Pragmatic Theory: A proposition is true if in the long run it will be believed by the community.
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