Chapters 1-5 Mid Term Notes

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Jaqueline Brunning

Chapter One: What is an argument? Argument: an argument is a set of declarative sentences in which one or more sentences (the premises) are offered in support of another sentence (the conclusion) Conclusion: in an argument, the claim for which the premises are intended as support. It is this claim that the arguer tries to make credible Opinion: a belief typically about matter open to dispute where there is not full proof and others have different ideas. Often people are aware that their opinions are not fully backed up evidence and hold less firmly to them than to other beliefs fir, which there is more conclusive evidence, less disagreement, or both. Indicator words: suggest the presence of argument and help to indicate its structure; indicate which statements are premises and which are conclusions, show the direction of reasoning Premise indicator: since, because, for, follows from, as shown by ect. Conclusion indicator: therefore, thus, so, consequently, in conclusion ect. Conditional Statement: describes and links several conditions, specifying that if one conditions hold, another will as well; found within argument but as such they do not express arguments If arctic ice melts, then ocean levels around the world will rise. Argument versus Explanation Explanation: claims are put forward in an attempt to render a further claim understandable to offer an account as to why it is true Explanations are offered on the assumption that the fact, situation, or event being explained exists and the question is why or how it comes into existence 1. Explanations are similar to arguments except they do not try to convince (Persuade) 2. Arguments try to prove the same claim is true. Explanations try to explain why some claim is true 3. Explanations have explanans and explanandum www.notesolution.comFactor (1) Factor (2) Factor (3) Factor N Therefore, Fact or event x came to be Explanation by purpose: offer an account of why something makes sense by relating it to human motives Explanation of meaning: explain the meaning of words; using other words that mean the same thing Ex. Sibling and brother or sister * Or it could be descriptive, expository, or narrative writing Chapter Two: Pinning Down the Argument Standardizing an argument: to set out its premises and conclusion in clear statements with the premises preceding the conclusion (a) Put the argument in a form that displays the structure of the argument (b) Main arguments and all sub arguments must be displayed Sub arguments: subordinate argument that is a component of a larger argument; which can be called the whole argument Linked support: a kind of support where premises are interdependent in their support for a conclusion; when premises are linked the removal of one would affect the bearing of the others upon the conclusion 1. A computer has no freedom of action 2. A computer cannot deliberately break rules
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