Summary #2: Richard Taylor, William Paley, John Hick
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Richard Taylor (The Cosmological Argument):
• He was an American philosopher.
• He believes that there must be a reason for the existence of everything in the
world, and the world itself. It is not accidental.
• He believes that existence generally requires a reason.
• He looks at the “principle of sufficient reason” which is that in any positive truth,
that there is a sufficient reason for it; something that makes it true. That there is
an explanation for it whether it be known or not, for everything.
- Contingent Truth: A truth that depends on something else
- Necessary Truth: A truth depending only on itself and are true by their very OWN
- Self-caused: Not meaning something that brings itself into existence, but rather
that it is not contingent or dependent on something else but its own nature. A
being that can neither come into being nor perish (die).
- First-cause: To describe God as a first cause is to say that he is literally
primary/ultimately rather than a secondary/derived cause; a being in which all
things on heaven and earth depend on for their existence. (Example) the sun is the
first cause of daylight, even for the moonlight at night as well, which means that
moonlight and daylight ultimately depend on the sun for their existence. The
moon on the other hand is only a secondary derived cause of its light.
• Believes that God really had no beginning. He basically is the beginning.
• Believes that things in the universe; sun, moon, stars and planets seem impossible
to exist on their own independently by their very own natures.
! Believes that creation means dependence. (example) A flame that is casting
beams of light. The beams of light are dependent on the flame which is their
source and depend on it for its existence. The beams depend on the flame but the
flame does not depend on the beams. Therefore the beams are the creation of the
flame; they derive their existence from it. None of this has any reference to time.
! This is how he also views the world as the creation of God. The world depends on
him for existence, but not vice versa. God is eternal.
• He believes that God is the creator of the heaven and earth and therefore he exists.
He believes that anything that exists by its own nature must be eternal and
• Believes that God exists by its own nature. The world is contingent and gets its
existence from something that exists by its own nature (doesn’t depend on
anything else) and is eternal and imperishable, and is the creator of both heaven
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