In the passage, two characters, plato"s teacher socrates, and plato"s brother glaucon, are engaged in a conversation about the nature and value of justice. laws and covenants have been made, and what the law commands, they call lawful and just. This, they say, is the origin and essence of justice. people who do good things, usually do it to get the recognition and rewards that follow along with it. People are usually afraid of the consequences and punishments that follow unjust acts, and which therefore makes them too afraid and weak to act unjust; people know the likelihood of them getting away with unjust acts is very small. Therefore, we settle with these implemented rules to protect ourselves. (example) the story of the ancestor of gyges of lydia: he was a shepherd, and one day there was an earthquake that opened up the ground.