A concept that science and religion do not overlap. Science is directed towards making existential/scientific claims and religion is directed towards faith. Hard concrete evidence is required to have a belief in something. This concept is used as a method of avoiding consequences of actions which may have high stakes. Ungrounded beliefs are more likely to harm someone while true beliefs allow for us to make decisions which have the potential to avoid these consequences. Pragmatism is used as support for the belief in god. It is that the belief in something is recommended due to its side effects. Does the prudential reasoning outweigh the epistemic reasoning, i. e. if what you have to lose outweighs what you have to gain. The expectation of a given action can be calculated by a simple formula: for each state, multiply the utility that the action produces in that state by the state"s probability; then, add those numbers.