•2 kinds of evil: moral evil (human wickedness), non-moral evil(suffering, pain. Either mental or
physical, as result of natural causes).
•Hick argues that the possibility of moral evil is needed for human freedom.
•God could have made creatures that never did anything bad, but they would not be free.
•Being with a free will relation to God , must be possible to make choices against will of God, choose evil.
•God couldn’t create a free being guaranteed not to choose evil.
•Moral evil: something is a person only if it can choose to do wrong, a world in which it is possible to do
wrong is better than one without that option, if God exists she/he created the best possible world. God
would create a world with moral evil.
•Non-moral evil: God couldn’t have made everything as comfortable as possible for us. Christians don’t
think the world would have a great moral purpose if it was comfort paradise; we have to struggle in
order to develop spiritually. For the purpose of ‘soul making’. Possible when there’s non-moral evil.
GROUNDS FOR BELIEF
Blaise Pascal (48-49) – The Wager
•If there is a God, he is infinitely beyond our comprehension, since, being indivisible and without limits,
he bears no relation to us. We are therefore incapable of knowing either what he is or whether he is.
That being so, who would dare to attempt an answer to that question. Certainly not we, who bear no
relation to him,.
•Pascal does NOT think we can give a successful rational proof of the existence of God.
•It is rational to believe that God exists
It’s in the self-interest of the unbeliever to become a believer in God. Belief in God is rationally expected
to pay off for you.
•It’s impossible to choose based on reasons (proofs or evidence).
•One option (call it A) superdominates another (call it B) if all the outcomes associated with A are better
than the outcomes associated with B.
•One option (call it A) dominates another (call it B) if the sum expected value (probability times payoff)
associated with A is higher than the expected value associated with B.
•If there’s even a tiny chance that God exists, believing is the rational thing to do. Believing carries a
chance of infinite reward, and a chance of some wasted time; failing to believe carries a chance of
infinite punishment. If you multiply even the smallest number by infinity, you get infinity: the
expected value of belief in God is infinite.