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Final

Exam questions and outlined answers


Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHL105Y5
Professor
Diana Raffman
Study Guide
Final

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WHAT IS CULTURAL RELATIVISM? IDENTIFY AND EXPLAIN FOUR DIFFERENT CHALLENGES FOR
CULTURAL RELATIVISM.
Cultural relativism: no universal ethical code; depends on ones own culture
-relativism: relative to ones own culture; cant judge others based on own standards
Challenges
-what if someone is part of more than one culture?
-norms of each culture may contradict with each other
-which cultures norms do you follow?
-Cant say anything against what others do because you have to assume that it is
acceptable in their culture
-cant criticize others
-example: polygamy in other cultures is acceptable but we cant say its wrong
-the only way to determine if something is right or wrong can be determined by societys
norms-therefore, we cant criticize ours or others actions as long as it follows social norms
-contradicts with our previous beliefs
-ex. Most people believe that certain crimes are wrong but it may be permissible in
some culture
-example: animal cruelty is a crime in our culture but people dont always care about
animals in other cultures and torture them
-psychological egoism: everyone primarily does things for their own sake
WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGICAL EGOISM? DRAWING FROM PLATO AND /OR RACHELS, IDENTIFY AND
EXPLAIN TWO ARGUMENTS OFFERED IN SUPPORT FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL EGOISM. THEN IDENTIFY AND
EXPLAIN AN OBJECTION TO EACH ARGUMENT.
-statement of fact; doesnt consider what we ought to do (morals)
-example : giving up seat for older person on bus because it makes us feel like a better
person, not for the sake of the older person
Support
-example: Lincoln and the Pigs
-psychologist egoist would say that he saved the pigs so he wouldnt have to worry about
them drowning for the rest of the day
A. Selfish and unselfish people do what they want to do.
B. We do things to have a pleasant state of conscious
-counterargument: only good people would care to have a pleasant state of conscious/
not helping the pigs would only affect the conscious of a good person
-selfish and unselfish people are troubled by different things
Objection to each argument
-only feel bad for pigs because he is concerned for their suffering; a selfish person wouldnt
care
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