Chapter One: What is an argument?
Argument: an argument is a set of declarative sentences in which one or more sentences (the
premises) are offered in support of another sentence (the conclusion)
Conclusion: in an argument, the claim for which the premises are intended as support. It is this
claim that the arguer tries to make credible
Opinion: a belief typically about matter open to dispute where there is not full proof and others
have different ideas. Often people are aware that their opinions are not fully backed up evidence
and hold less firmly to them than to other beliefs fir, which there is more conclusive evidence,
less disagreement, or both.
Indicator words: suggest the presence of argument and help to indicate its structure; indicate
which statements are premises and which are conclusions, show the direction of reasoning
Premise indicator: since, because, for, follows from, as shown by ect.
Conclusion indicator: therefore, thus, so, consequently, in conclusion ect.
Conditional Statement: describes and links several conditions, specifying that if one conditions
hold, another will as well; found within argument but as such they do not express arguments
If arctic ice melts, then ocean levels around the world will rise.
Argument versus Explanation
Explanation: claims are put forward in an attempt to render a further claim understandable – to
offer an account as to why it is true
Explanations are offered on the assumption that the fact, situation, or event being explained exists
and the question is why or how it comes into existence
1.Explanations are similar to arguments except they do not try to convince
2.Arguments try to prove the same claim is true. Explanations try to explain why some
claim is true
3.Explanations have explanans and explanandum