PHL255H5 Study Guide - Underdetermination, Intelligent Designer, Hershel Greene

187 views38 pages
School
Department
Course
PHL255 Notes
Lecture 2 โ€“ September 13, 2010
Philosophy of Science
Logical Positivism
Positivism
๎€school of thought that emphasizes the importance of science or
empirical science
๎€Comte โ€“ a famous one, Has three stage of progression:
oTheological stage
๎€Gods, spirits, magic, this would be in terms of religion
oMetaphysical stage
๎€Society explain whatโ€™s around them like forces, particles,
atoms, universe is made up of particles
๎€This has an intentional entity
oScientific
๎€It does not appeal to crazy phenomena
๎€It does not explain Why something happen, it is
observable, empirical knowledge, comes from senses
(hearing, touching, etc)
๎€Things not from senses is spooky, not real
๎€All things comes from observable things
Contrast: Aristotleโ€™s essences
๎€‚something has a thing in it
oacorn grow because that is how it is, that is their essence
oexplain why things develop in a certain way
๎€‚entelechies of early biology โ€“ 18th-19th
osomething develops because it is itโ€™s purpose in life and it is itโ€™s
goal
othis is where things stared
๎€‚ Souls in various religious traditions
opositivists say that this is beyond the realm of empirical
knowledge, they said this is non sense
๎€‚Magnetism in Physics
oThereโ€™s no force in magnets because you canโ€™t see it
oItโ€™s unobservable
๎€‚Positivist are saying, there might be something to it and that it is not
just all garbage
www.notesolution.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 38 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
๎€‚Because modern science is been working good
๎€‚Pos: lets take a page out of their book
German Idealism
๎€‚Berkeley, Kant, Hegel
๎€‚They talk about the nature of being,
Romanticism
Logic
๎€‚We know things through pure reason or experience
๎€‚Positivist have a lot of respect for this
๎€‚They Had respect for Formal Logic
๎€‚Math
o2+2 = 4
ono largest prime number
๎€‚Logic
oP๎€ƒ(P or Q) If P is true, then either P or Q is True
๎€‚Conceptual Truths
oNothing can be both red and green all over at the same
Formal Logic: Frege
๎€‚reducing math to set theory
๎€‚Russell and White head
oReduced math to logic
After All is Saidโ€ฆ
Logical Postivism
๎€‚All knowledge ultimately comes from
oexperience / observation
oLogic
๎€‚It is good with how science works
๎€‚What difference science from pseudo science
๎€‚How scientific method works
oStep1: come up with a hypothesis
๎€Theory ex: d=4.9t^2
oStep2: Derive in observable prediction from a theory and
some conditions of testing
๎€Test how much it will drop in 3 seconds
๎€Prediction 3 sec = 44.1 meters
oStep 3: Verify information
๎€Then you do drop the thing, experiment!
www.notesolution.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 38 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
๎€‚Schematic way of seeing it
oTheory + Conditional ๎€„ Observational โ€“ Logic
oO โ€“ Observation
oAfter everything is done, theory is verified
Letโ€™s look at it from Mendelian Genetics
๎€‚Punnet squares Tt vs Tt
๎€‚75% tall and 25% short
๎€‚Pabloโ€™s Dogs
oDogs salivate with food, he wanted to see if he could make
dogs salivate on other things, then he took a bell and fed
them at the same time, then he took food out just ring bell
and dog salivate
The Verification Criterion of Meaning
๎€‚The positivists response to say which one is gibberish and which
one is true
๎€‚They look at the fact that there is really something out there VS
things that are in our mind
๎€‚Descarte vs Berkeley
oDescarte desk is there because it exists even though im
looking at it or not
oBerkeley desk is only there whenever iโ€™m looking at it
๎€‚This debate is metaphysical
๎€‚Meaningless debate because you cannot answer with observation
๎€‚It all goes beyond what we can observe
๎€‚There are things that you cannot answer through experience
๎€‚There is no difference, what they mean is that the same thing
๎€‚It doesnโ€™t matter if there is something there or not, but itโ€™s there
๎€‚Whatโ€™s possible and impossible is not the same
๎€‚Difference between descarte and Berkeley is meaningless
oThere is no actual debate
๎€‚Meaningful vs Meaningless
Ayer
๎€‚Pg 5
oโ€œA meaningful hypothesis is one from which we can deduce
together with other assumptions, and observable
prediction that could not have been deduced from those
www.notesolution.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 38 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

school of thought that emphasizes the importance of science or empirical science. comte a famous one, has three stage of progression: theological stage. gods, spirits, magic, this would be in terms of religion: metaphysical stage. society explain what"s around them like forces, particles, atoms, universe is made up of particles. this has an intentional entity: scientific. I t does not appeal to crazy phenomena. I t does not explain why something happen, it is observable, empirical knowledge, comes from senses (hearing, touching, etc) things not from senses is spooky, not real. Contrast: aristotle"s essences something has a thing in it: acorn grow because that is how it is, that is their essence, explain why things develop in a certain way. entelechies of early biology 18th-19th: something develops because it is it"s purpose in life and it is it"s goal, this is where things stared.

Get access

Grade+20% OFF
$8 USD/m$10 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Grade+
Homework Help
Study Guides
Textbook Solutions
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
Booster Class
40 Verified Answers