POL112- Midterm Notes.docx

4 Pages
486 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Political Science
Course
POL112H5
Professor
Justin Bumgardner
Semester
Winter

Description
Democracy Mid­Term Liberal Democracy More than just elections, be competitive, treated equal in terms of toleration of  minorities; ethnic, religious, racial, law treats everyone equally • Freedom and democracy are universal values and rights  Competitive and free elections  Substantial voting franchise is allowed to participate  Rulers are held accountable  Checks on the powers of elected officials  Rule of law = all citizens are equal before the law, no one is above the law,  and the laws are known in advance and administered by an impartial  judiciary  Individual freedoms: belief, opinion, speech, publication, assembly,  petition, etc.  Freedom of religion and culture for minorities and historically excluded  majorities • They are western concepts, not universal  Right of all citizens to run for office  Genuine openness and competition in the electoral arena  Freedoms from torture, terror, unjustified detention, exile, or interference  in their personal lives  Real pluralism in sources of information  Civilian control of the military and state security apparatus  A state that has elections, but is lacking significantly in these dimensions  is a pseudodemocracy Internal Factors that Drive Democracy 1. Economic development: more income, more education, development of the middle class 2. Ruler wants to liberalize or surrender their rule ­­ fulfill their mission and legitimize or  they surrender when they fail their mission 3. Citizens no longer condone the authoritarian regime; political values shift ex. Africa, fed  up with being repressed and lack of promises being fulfilled 4. Hierarchy of Human Needs; Nigeria unable to sustain basic need ex. Food, Shelter,  Water: no time to think about government when the state is able to sustain themselves,  they can think about the government External Factors that Drive Democracy 1. Peaceful forms of external pressure ex. Economic sanctions: trade or monetary, U.S  placed trade sanctions on Cuba, failed reasons for a sanction, isolates country and intern  they're no longer dependent on the west which causes the sanction to fail  2. Democratic affects; Bush gives aid to eligible countries who illustrate principle of  democracy 3. Military intervention; U.S intervention ex. Haiti; the U.N security council authorized the  intervention in Haiti 3 Waves of Democracy 1st Wave­ 1828 democratic suffrage in U.S, reverse wave in 1920's when Mussolini took  over Italy 2nd Wave­ Began in 1945, reverse wave it began in 1962, Most of Latin America  converted to democracies, only 2 countries were democracies, military hunts are the  reason why so many democracies were over­ruled  3rd Wave­ started in 1974 began Portuguese revolution, spread to Spain, Greece and  Latin America, spread with the fall of the Berlin wall, mid 1990's 60% of the worlds  states were democracies, only about 25% of all states were democracies in 1974   Modernization Theory • Powerful correlation between democracy and economic development • High levels of education and personal income and middle class Culturally­based pessimism theories • Emphasis on order over freedom, community over individual How the third wave happened Early transition Internal Grievances; defeat in war (Greece and Argentina), the death  of a dictator (in Spain), murder of opposition (Philippines), emotional visit pope (Poland) Later transition; simulated by earlier ones snow ball affect (Poland and Eastern  Germany influenced other Eastern European moverments) Negotiated Character to them/Regime Change­ powers that be negotiate with the  revolution, collapsed in the face of military defeat and mass demonstr
More Less

Related notes for POL112H5

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit