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Political Science

GGR 208 Midterm Notes Lecture 2. Population: Collection of people in a specific geographic place at a particular time Demography: scientific study of populations (Mortality, Fertility) Population Geography: The study of human population regarding its size, composition, distribution, and changes over time— Looks at the relationship between population and space and regional differences Why do people move? -Depends on the scale of movement, international migration or internal migration -these patterns reflect why people move (safety, sense of community, access to health services ect.) -scale determines what can be observed. For ex.At a local scale, we can't compare how one city is to another, we need a larger scale -ModifiableAreal Unit Problem: statistical error resulting from clumping geographical data resulting in bias. -- Seen in politics where it is used as a strategy to give voting advantage to a political party Understanding Population -Population size: world Population is now aprox. 7 billion -Population Composition: Focus is on age and sex, other factors include income, education status -Spatial distribution: On a global sclae 60% of world pop is located inAsia, On a local scale in Canada (2008), 80% live in urban areas while 20% live in rural -Changes Age distribution of the worlds population -Less developed regions have more young people than old compared to more developed regions where there is a more even age distribution. With increased life expectancy within the developed region, the population pyramids indicate that the population is getting older compared to less developed regions with smaller life expectancy -Women have a longer life expectancy than Men, the older the age group, the more women there are than men Population Change over time -How did we get to 7 billion? -Most of the growth in the population increase have been taking place in the less developed countries while the developed countries are stabilized What determines Growth? -Total Fertility rate: average # of children born to women during childbearing age (Rate of 2.1 is replacement value=stable) Developed countries would thus have a lower TFR while Developing countries would have a higher TFR -Crude Birth rate: number of births per 1000 people in population -Crude Death rate: number of deaths per 1000 people in population -Rate of natural Increase: population growth based on the CBR and CDR, Births-Deaths *100 Demographic transition theory -theory that describes the historical shift in birth and death rates of a population in 4 stages Stage 1: Slow growth, high birth and death rates Stage 2: Rapid growth, rapid decrease in deaths while still high birth rates Stage 3:Rapid growth still, birth rates decreasing to replacement level of death rates Stage 4: Population stability, low birth and death rates Lecture 3. Understanding Fertility -TFR is less in urban areas and more in rural -Globally, the TFR is declining in both the the developing and developed regions -Trends of decline are different from the increase in the 1900's Determinants of Fertility -Biological: technology has lengthened the childbearing age (Fecundity) of women. Women lose fertility around the ages of 45-60. In developing countries, there are more women who are bearing children at a younger age compared to the developed countries -Economical: Cost of supporting a child in developed countries are more than developing. Developing are concerned with surviving while developed are concerned with money. High fertility rates =good for economy -Social: Age of marriage is increasing over time in developed countries, the opposite effect in developing countries. Biggest predictor of woman's fertility rate=Education. Childbearing is pushed after schooling years and employment after (university then work then marriage) -Cultural: Desired family size and family planning, all determined by economic resources, life expectancy, and education. Family planning though contraception and birth control methods. Why not contraception? - because no access, want to get pregnant, issues vary by place -Political: Anti natalist: policy that discourages fertility and child bearing through disincentives/incentives such as the one child policy in China. Pro Natalist: encourages fertility Lecture 4. Understanding Mortality What contributes to death rates? -Ability to deal with infectious disease: Vaccination and access to health care services -Improvement in Sanitation: safe access to water -Life style choices: Nutrition and exercise Who is John Snow -Father of health geography who was first to connect cholera with vectors in water Life expectancy: The average number of years an individual can be expected to live from birth under current mortality levels. Generally increases as countries move through stages of Demographic Transition theory. Have been increasing overtime in canada Major Causes of death for Developing and Developed countries Developed: where 2/3 of population lives 70+, Chronic diseases (cancer, diabetes, lung infection) Developing: where 1/3 deaths occur before 15 years of age, Infections diseases
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