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Political Science
Mark Lippincott

Chapter 1 Ideologies - based on age of enlightenment when people began to believe that they could improve their lives by taking positive action instead of passively accepting life - interrelated concepts that try to describe reality - used to mobilize people - political ideologies come from rational reasons for the brutal methods and confusion that result from urbanization/ industrialization IDEOLOGIES ARE : 1) political term 2) view of present and vision of the future 3) action oriented 4) directed towards the masses 5) simplified to be motivational/ relatable Chapter 2 The Political Spectrum The Political Spectrum Place on spectrum can change according to the issue at hand Place on spectrum depends on 1) age young are more likely to be liberal 2) psychological liberals are more open minded and tend to deal with disorder better 3) nature of the person- do you think people are naturally good or evil? 4) Economics 4 main elements of political change direction progressive or retrogressive depth major or minor adjustment in society speed more upset= more rapidly they want to see change method official/unofficial, legal/ illegal, smoothly/ abruptly, peacefully/ violently Radicals - discontent with status quo - favor revolutionary change/ immediate change - extremists change societies most cherished values Liberals want to maximize human rights fast change egalitarianism (classlessness) suspicious of police oppressing the common people Internationalists Government should protect against the economic elite appreciate laws more than radicals so less likely to use violence rationalists CLASSICAL LIBERAL: natural law, private property, government oppresses people CONTEMPORARY LIBERAL: private property is a social right, but government can improve life through social engineering (invasive policies for = start) Moderate satisfied with society yet understand there is room for improvement and recognize areas in need of modification gradual change without disturbing social order Conservative defends status quo change will make things worse because human reason cant solve societys problems authoritarian control police power controls the threats to status quo nationalists property rights above all else, oppose government involvement in economy irrationalists TORIES: advocate ruling of the upper class but to govern in societys best interest ENTREPRENEURS: government should not be involved in economy so the cream of the crop can rise to the top Reactionists retrogressive change war is good favor unequal distribution of wealth the entire reactionists side = the entire left side basically satisfied nominally satisfied dissatisfied extremely dissatisfied Chapter 3 Nation State Nation (union) State (structure) Nation State Sociological term for Nation= unity people united by some or Political term for State= struture all: - People (citizens/ Hard balance - Language subjects) Example Quebec - Ethnicity - Territory (defined boarders) - Culture - Geography - Recognized govt - Proximity - Sovereignty (legal - Political values authority) Natural Theory - definition of humanity is based on the existence of the state - people are human only within the state (through expression of political organization) - organic society = instinct to interact community state (formal community), therefore state is the natural environment Force Theory - state is a result of the strong imposing their power over the weak - NEGATIVE conquest over the weak so no legitimacy - POSITIVE force is a primary value in society (statism) used to justify actions allowing the arranging of affairs to be in order Divine Theory - particular group of people were chosen by God - the state paves the way to paradise providing peace and order, creating the atmosphere in which people could best serve God - at some point in all states history they see themselves as chosen by God - divine selection is self identified - this status leads to justified conquest Divine Right Of Kings - monarch as the personification of the state - original donation = Adams fall from grace was his power over all other creation so all other kinds are his heir Social Contract theory - ruler and ruled have obligations to one another - may not always be democratic - against all other theories - all legitimate authority = people - state created by people agreeing to come into a community together Chapter 4 Development of Democracy Process Democrats Principal Democrats Whatever majority wants majority Civil liberties must be protected first should get to insure democratic objectives, then majority vote Democracy - everyone is essentially equal - each person has a say in who governs - legitimate political power comes from the government and the people therefore it is only legal when there is consent by the governed = SOCIAL CONTRACT Social Contract Philosophers - govt is not a natural circumstance, people used to live in the state of nature - natural rights = rules that are absolute, universal, eternal measures of human conduct - people are rational therefore govt is a rational attempt to solve problems Thomas Hobbes John Locke J.J. Rousseau Classical LIB RAD Human Self interested Moral, equal because entitled to Shy Nature natural rights (not physically equal) State of Brutish, short, solitary life People are equal to one another Avoided conflict, but it was not Nature where people would clash but disputes starts once private fulfilling, no moral life over property comes and when war a) competition for starts there is no one to stop it resources b) dishonor c) fear driven + self preservation Freedom in Free when subordinated to a Natural rights = Life, liberty anPrivate property is as social the move to monarch estate right not a natural right social The original society formed contract through the social contract only led men to wear chains as it became more sophisticated so it needed to be completely destroyed and a new one must be created founded on equality called public person = organic society Government Monarch (superior Parliamentary Republic Direct Democracy (no one can individual) who abided Allowed private property but speak for others) social contract but who could not more then is needed Leg> Executive
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