POL114 EXAM REVIEW.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course
POL114H5
Professor
Jurgensen
Semester
Winter

Description
What are “Security Dilemmas” and why do they pose such a great problem in international relations? Explain using specific examples to illustrate your answer. Security Dilemma: - security dilemma are a product of international anarchy in which states seek to rely on their own means to ensure their security by developing their military force - in doing so they inspire fear and distrust in their neighbor’s, who are also armed. - This reaction starts on arms race in which none of the participants is any more secure (and may in fact be less secure) than it was initially - States take unilateral measures to ensure their own security by decreasing the security of neighbouring states, which will perceive these measures as threatening and will take counter measures. 2nd part of the question - Results in poorer states suffering - The country/state with the most money will win since they can afford to develop a stronger military force. - Brings the idea of mutually assured destruction (fear) and arms race - Mutually assured destruction is a sense that the increased military measure will result in a states of fright - Attacks will lead to destruction - Thus increased military is essentially pointless - The money used to improve the military power could’ve been used to enhance other things. Examples: - Soviet union vs. united states (nuclear weapon) Nationalism (dimension of cold war) - any countries in war = security dilemma - USA and china by improving the self defense of Taiwan International relations scholars disagree about the significance of globalization. Explain the realist, liberal and at least one of the critical perspective on the issue of globalization. Where do you stand on the issue? Globalization: - a single set of values that dominates the globe - social process where the constraints of geography on social culture arrangements recede and in which people become increasingly aware that they are receding - economies are interconnected - more people than ever in history have a high standard of living - there has been a widening gap between rich and poor states and people - convergence can be found in increase in bilateral free trade agreements and growing membership in WTO - divergence in the imbalance of investment flows across the world and increased division of the world into trade blocks - relationship between globalization, economic activity and politics is illustrated through the role of multinational corporation Realist argue: - globalization is going on but increased global trade has come and go in history and these interconnections are seen as benefiters but when there is a deadline then conflicts between states increase and a greater degree of nationalism arises. States want to protect their share and back away from interconnection - The economic nationalism will prevail. States will cooperate in the world economy when it is in their interest to do so but will frequently be in conflict or competition. Governments are primarily concerned with themselves and this is just a way to increase power - Trade barriers, existence of trade wars etc. are evidence that the world economy is a competitive arena to pursue state interest - Limited progress from state controlled institutions/organizations Liberals argue: - globalization today is different than times before - European union is a super rational state, individual states give up their sovereignty and become a part of a large entity st - 1 step to EU was the European coal and steel community-combined French and German markers as one and institute free trade amongst them-later more members - What happened in Europe can happen in the world with less conflicts present - Liberals look at other dimensions other than the economic view - Individuals, households and firms maximizing their opportunity to pursue mutually beneficial exchange in the global market place - Institutions built by states reduce tariffs, rule based trade and greater cooperation and economic interdependence leads to a wealthier and less war like world Neoliberals - argue states should have a minimal managerial role in economic affair and states intervention creates obstacles in the market. The global market shouldn't be subjected to controls or be responsible for the redistribution of wealth Keynesian liberals - argue there needs to be more state intervention and more of an effort to manage the global economy in the interests or poor countries and poverty reduction. They argue the world is driven into disaster by the neoliberal agenda, which has allied itself with the inserts of big corporation. Main institutions established to accomplish the above (referring to quote). To what extent have international Institutions and Law transformed the context within which states function?  Generally there are two types of International organizations that exist: -Intergovernmental: share a number of characteristics…they comprise only states, they are created by treaties between states therefore have legal standing under International Law, they hold regular meetings attended by delegates from member states, they have permanent headquarters and an executive secretariat that runs day to day activities of the organization and finally, they have permanent administrative employees that work for the organization and do not represent their own governments. -Non Governmental: non profit organizations of individuals dedicated to a particular cause or representing particular social movements  The main institutions are The League of Nations and The United Nations  They were established for two main reasons: 1. Practicality: once the nation-state system was established and contacts between states expanded, it was clear that governments would have to maintain linkages that facilitated communication and coordination, new lines of communication had to be established as economic interdependence between states grew; trade relations are highly dependent on order, the ability to expect payment for goods, fair treatment in foreign markets, freedom from piracy and other factors 2. International Organizations can serve a much broader purpose, such as the establishment or maintenance of world order and peace. League of Nations  Created at the end of WWI; two principles underlay the League’s system of peace maintenance 1. Members agreed to respect and preserve the Territorial Integrity and Political Interdependence of other states 2. Any war or threat of war was considered a matter of concern to the entire league.  The league centered around three major organs: -Assembly: to which all member-states belonged, it was primarily responsible for discussing important issues confronting either individual members of the league or the International community as a whole. -Council: primarily responsible for discussing the maintenance of peace. -Secretariat: responsible for administrative duties  The league established/incorporated bureaus and committee’s dealing with disease, communications, traffic in arms slavery, drugs, labor, women and children  The League was linked to several organizations such as : the Economic and Financial Organization, the Health Organization, the Organizations for Communications and Transit, the High Commissioner for Refugees and the Intergovernmental Committee’s on the Drug Traffic  Unfortunately, the league was unable to settle serious disputes, and was reduced to insignificance by the uprising of WW2…and was officially disbanded in April 1946  The league was often used as evidence of the inherent limitations of International Institutions and International law in an anarchic world. The United Nations  Plan to create this organization came about during WW2  The term “United Nations” originated in the Washington Declaration of 1942, where 26 allied countries pledged to fight Germany, Japan and Italy…in 1943 the governments of the US, Soviet Union, China and Great Britain prepared to issue a clear statement of their intention to establish a general International Organization, within which several agencies would fall under or come to be closely associated with.  Several conferences took place in order to map out the foundation of the UN (e.g. The Dumbarton Oaks Conference of August 21, 1944; Yalta Conference of February 1945; San Francisco Conference)  The International Court of Justice was created under the UN  Two main reasons for the creation of the UN: 1. If negotiations for an IO had been left to the end of the war, it would have been difficult to reach a consensus on how to create the organization considering that politicians would be too preoccupied with political, economic and social issues at home 2. the founders of the UN did not want it to appear as if the rights and obligations contained in the UN Charter were being imposed on states as a part of the peace settlement (this appeared to be the case in the LofN)  The UN preformed many crucial functions most prominently in the process of decolonization, peacekeeping and aid development.  It had 6 principle organs: General Assembly: a forum in which all states can send representatives to sit in session, present opinions , and vote on resolutions, which need a two-thirds majority to pass. Security Council: includes five permanent members (China, France, Russia, UK, and US)…these states have veto over any matter that comes before the council, there are also 10 nonpermanent members; this is still the organ that deals with maintaining peace and security Economic and Social Council: considers general policy questions regarding economic and social development Trusteeship Council: helps manage trust terri
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