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Political Science

1 POL 114 JURGENSEN DECEMBER 2013 FINAL EXAM REVIEW IDEOLOGIES ISSUE IDEALISM REALISM LIBERALISM CRITICAL THEORIES (MARXISM, Feminism, Environmentalists) Human nature Good Evil, selfish Good, willing to Variable cooperate for mutual gain Central problem War (prevented by War, security War prevented by Capitalism; establishing encouraging marginalization ad peace) cooperation/trade imperialism; on global issues gender inequality; ecocide Key actors States, individual States Individuals Classes; groups Motives of actors Mutual assistance; Power; national Rational self- Power; greed; collaboration; interest; security; interest; liberation; justice collective security military power justice/democracy; (hard power) peace; prosperity; soft power Nature of Cooperation, Anarchy; Interdependent; Hierarchy; international community economic growth economic growth dominance; politics will not overcome will promote exploitation; state conflicts peace resistance Outlook on future Optimism; human Pessimism; Optimism; Pessimism: progress stability progress is paradigmatic possible; economic change/revolution growth is good for is only hope for all change; classless communist society of equality Policy Reform system; Enhance power; Develop revolution, prescriptions and develop protect national institutions and transformation, solutions institutions interests regimes to and social change encourage cooperation 2 POST-COLD WAR Cold War Post Cold War East - West Rich North - Poor South Interstate Interstate MAD proliferation Alliances Zones of peace & instability Military Security Econ. Soc. & Env. Security High Intensity Conflict Low Intensity Conflict War in Europe Regional Conflict Superpower Arms Control Global Arms Control Escalation Spillover Superpowers (US vs. USSR), bipolar US Hegemony, unipolar US HEGEMONY Rise of US - emerged as a superpower after WWII exhausted other countries - United Nations "supposed" to be a world hegemony, but US funds it, hence controls it; US use power to go around UN rules Bretton Woods - decline of British power = rise of other states (US, USSR), hence lack of single power to provide currency - system to regulate world currency/world back after WWII (to reconstruct Europe after war and development of third world countries); to establish international economic system; US dollar reserved currency; IMF (International Monetary Fund) - to contribute GDP - helping (third world) countries in debt - lower cost of production by lowering wages in developing countries - lowering value of currency - reducing government spending INTERNATIONAL LAW AND ORGANIZATION Ending International Anarchy I: International Organizations (IO) REALISM LIBERALISM MARXISM Advancing national self- Means of enabling Tool of the powerful = interest; can't overcome cooperation; collective unequal distribution of power sovereignty security (between powerful and weaker states) 3 Ending international anarchy II: international law (IL) - IL derived by treaties (e.g. Charter of the United Nations), which ensures the primacy of the principle of state sovereignty - states that disobey IL are subject to reprisals (actions that would have been illegal under IL may be legal if taken in response to the illegal actions of another state) - jurisdictional overlap: creates tensions between those advocating prosecution under domestic law and those advocating prosecution under IL REALISM LIBERALISM MARXISM States (esp. weak) search for Int. cooperation through the Stabilizing an existing security; anarchy creation of widely accepted distribution of wealth and norms power - 3 levels of IL: 1) Constitutional: sovereignty, self determination, non intervention 2) Fundamental: basic norms of coexistence - diplomacy & cooperation, contractual international law, multilateralism 3) Issue Specific: “regimes” – treaties banning chemical weapons, nuclear proliferation, landmines… League of Nations - created at end of WWI - system of peace maintenance: 1) Members agreed to respect and preserve the Territorial Integrity and Political Interdependence of other states 2) Any war or threat of war was considered a matter of concern to the entire league - assembly: all member-states belonged; discussing issues confronting either individual members of the league or the international community as a whole
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