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POL114 Global Politics Lecture 1 (Sep. 11,2013) Introduction -Overview of course outline readings assignments midterm test final exam essay proposal- topic, research question, hypothesis International Relations as a field of study -different approaches and philosophical assumptions about politics and the state D. Easton and the liberal tradition: politics as allocation- who gets what when and how. Means of allocation: custom, exchange and command Custom: feudalism…consensus, divine right of kings… Exchange: equality, contract, markets…consensus Command: inequality, force and coercion… The necessity of command/politics Contract model of states origin/ consent of the governed Legislatures as arena of politics… Karl Schmitt and politics as Us v. the Other Basic dichotomy that defines disciplines (philosophy, ethics, economics, law) Politics- Friend v. Foe; order in any society is only possible in so far as the threat of disorder posed by other societies is kept at bay -most fundamental political function is deciding what other collectivities pose a threat. Presupposes the possibility of armed conflict -politics as existential (not legal, normative, ethical…) “there is no legal norm so important, morality so absolute no social project so compelling as to justify men killing each other. War, the fighters will to kill or be killed makes sense not because of some program but in the encounter with an actual foe” “War is not the be all and end all or content of politics, but a condition that it always presupposes” -politics is always about an emergency/crisis The origin of the 2 approaches: -Anglo/American tradition Locke, Hobbes, Rawls… -continental tradition Machiavelli, Sun Zu, Clausewitz… German historical experience Ideal Political institutions -liberal trad.- liberal democracy, checks and balances, sep. of powers…rule of law -Schmitt: dictatorship, efficiency, effectiveness, fascism… Compare and Contrast “Before liberty can be protected at home we must first be safe from enemies abroad” J.Locke How can one decide what collectivities pose a threat without reference to allocation? Cold War… In class: - Essay topic: Not generally something recent, but something that has a lot of information encompassing it. (chemical weapons usage prior to Syria) - Global politics is very diverse and therefore there is a lot of disagreement. Marxism What is politics? - David Eston: Wrote the political system. He defines politics as: - Politics is all about societies, and they have to all deal about one core issue and allocation. - Disvalued aspect of our social existence: Taxes (who will pay taxes), military (who is going to fight for the country. Only 3 ways to deal with allocation as said by Eston 1) Custom: Many societies have managed to deal with all of their allocation problems through customs and tradition. i.e being born a king, being born a peasant. 2) Exchange: Most of the allocation of process are done on the basis of a free functioning market. 3) Command: Being asked to do something. i.e Government asking you to pay taxes. custom and exchange are allocation processes that do not involve politics -Easton - Custom is based on consensus (Everyone agrees!!!) - Exchange is based on the fact that all parties on the exchange are equal. -Nobody society can avoid politics. This is because customs and exchange are only for things that are considered predictable. -Somebody has to take command. - Libertarians: We don’t need politics all we need is the exchange to deal with allocation - Governments are always evil. - Getting rid of politics is impossible. - Durkheim: You can’t establish the sanity of contracts and therefore we need command. - Karl Schmitt: He said that politics can be defined as a basic dichotomy that is used to define other subjects. - He came up with us vs the other, or friend vs foe. - order can exist in any society only if they can control the disorder posed by the nearby society. - Which neighbours can they co-exist with and which neighbours will threaten their existence. - Politics is existential (all about survival) - The need for the society to survive is the greatest need. - Asociety that favours allocation process’ over self survival is basically suicide. - Schmitt and Eston completely disagree: - Eston = Liberal democratic tradition. Grew up in Europe - This is because the only thing that brought down where Easton is from si CIVIL WAR. Therefore, allocation was very significant on Eston’s view. - Another example of this occurring was in the US, as they have never been attacked by an outside source but they have had a civil war. - Karl Schmitz - Was brought up in Germany which was not an official state and was considered as the battle ground. - Germany was also the largest ethnic group and was seen as the biggest threat if Germany was to become unified. - Mostly the fights were fought on German soul - Therefore, it makes sense that the problem for Karl is not allocation but security. Thomas Hobbes: “Life is nasty brudouch and short” - Everything i have is something you can’t have. John Lock: Hobbes sucessor. - Have a democracy but it has problems as it states majorities rule which does not help the minorities. - This is the nature of a Liberal Democratic State. - He saw this as an ideal system and this was also something that help design the American constitution. - Lock still believed that “when pushed he should push” Karl Schmitt: - Personally would be a dictatorship as what is to be necessary. - How does he decide which country is a friend or foe without seeing how they disturb their allocations. - He can’t. - Lets look at Cold War. Capitalism vs Communism (how they allocate resources) Realism: Karl Schmitt - There is no single authority that can pose order. - The absence of this sovereign creates societies that are dependent on themselves for their society. - The higher the trade interest the lower the risk for war. (England trading wool with wine from portugal) Chapter notes: CHAPTER NOTES: Chapter 1: Studying Global Politics: 1global politics is a complex, and often surreal, congruence of physical and intellectual power. 2Commonly, the study of international relations, or “IR” has been considered part of the larger field of political science. 3Students of business, medicine, law, geography, history, economics, and many other disciplines need a solid background in international relations to better understand their own disciplines. 4While studying IR does not provide a student with comprehensive knowledge about the world, it does advance one’s understanding of the context in which other states and peoples exist. 5Ideas and knowledge generated from theoretical thinking enables us to critically evaluate the position and rationales of governments, political leaders, and orthodox explanations of events. The Interdisciplinary, Yet Divided, Discipline 6The field of IR is divided into several sub-fields (sub-disciplines). In this way IR scholars can break an enormous amount of material and topics down into more digestible sections for investigation and analysis. 7The study of international relationships has four major subfields: 1International relations theory: is a body of literature that seeks to explain the nature of the international system and the behavior of the actors within it. 2International security: has traditionally involved the study of conflict and war and attempts to prevent or control it. Recently’ international security specialists have also been examining ethnic and religious conflicts, the proliferation of weapons, and the link between the environment and security. 3The study of international political economy: grew in the 1960s and 1970s as issues such as trade, finance, foreign debt, and underdevelopment became increasingly prominent in international affairs. 4International organization: it examines institutions such as the UN. It focuses on means of cooperation such as establishment of regimes or agreements among states, groups, or individuals, including international law. Idealism 8The death and destruction caused by WW1 resulted in a condemnation of how international politics had been conducted in the past. 9Postwar idealists shared a number of assumptions about the nature of humanity, the nature of world politics, the experience of WW1, and the road to the future: 1Human nature is essentially good. As a result, assistance and cooperation are possible and natural, motivated by the human qualities of altruism, philanthropy, and humanitarianism. 2Evil is not innate to humanity. Evil activity or harmful behavior is the result of bad institutions, states, and structures that motivate individuals to act in a self-interested, distrustful, or aggressive fashion. 3Social Progress is possible. Human society has developed and improved and will continue to do so. 4The main problem in international relationships is war. International society must reform itself with the aim of preventing future wars. 5War can be prevented. Eliminating bad institutions, states and structures will eliminate the root causes of war. 6International cooperation will promote peace. International organizations and international law will help prevent war. 10 The policy program of the idealists --- their proposed solutions to the problem of war and the issues facing the international system--- was expansive and ambitious. 11 The history of international relations, idealists believed, proved their argument that war was endemic because of the nature of the international system. Idealists believed that by changing the latter it would be possible to reduce or eliminate war. Their answer was the collective security system. 12 Collective security is a mutual multilateral consent to an agreement that declares that aggression by one state on any other is an attack on the whole; the primary security mechanism created by the UN charter in Chapter 7. 13 Within the collective security, all states would agree that in the case of aggression by any state against any other state in the system, all other states would respond to defend the attacked state. 14 The principles and hopes of political idealism did serve as a guide for postwar efforts to remake the international system. 15 Political idealism as a popular view of the world receded. However, it did not vanish. Realism: 16 The realist perspective developed within IR as a discipline following WW2, which many felt provided clear evidence that idealist claims about the progressive inclination of human nature were hopelessly naive. 17 Classical realism is less generous regarding human nature 18 People are generally viewed as self-interested creatures, and political power merely corrupts them further. 19 The realist perspective was thus built on the intellectual heritage of realpolitik. 20 Realpolitik is a german word meaning practical politics, but generally employed as a synonym for power politics in the realist tradition. 21 Although most realists would find the following to be an oversimplification of their world view, to varying degrees, realists assume that: 1People are essentially selfish and acquisitive by nature. 2The desire for power is instinctive to all individuals and cannot be eliminated. International politics is a zero sum struggle for power, where relative gains in power by one state or group necessarily mean a relative loss in power for other states or groups. 3The international system is anarchic in nature as no central authority or world government exists that is capable of enforcing rules. 4In such an environment, the primary objective of all states is to follow their national interests, defined in terms of power. 5In such an environment, states must ultimately rely on their own efforts to ensure their own security. 6Alliances can increase the security of a state, but the loyalty and reliability of allies should always be questioned. 7International organizations and international law cannot be relied on to guarantee security, as state actions are not bound by enforceable rules. 8Order can be achieved only by the balance of power system in which stability is maintained by flexible alliance systems. 22 CHECK OUT THE CHART ON PAGE 14 23 If power is as important as realists suggest, we need to know how to measure it. This task is not easy since much emphasis has been placed on the tangible, measurable capabilities of states. Such factors include the base assets of a state, such as its territory, population, geography, natural resources, and gross domestic product (GDP). 24 GDP: A measure of national income that excludes foreign earnings. 1These elements of power are long-term attributes that generally change slowly over time. They represent the foundation of state power. Liberalism: 25 Liberalism has deep intellectual roots. 26 Liberals emphasize the importance of values such as liberty, private property, the rule of law, free markets, democracy, and justice in the governance of domestic society. They seek to project these values onto global politics. 27 In general, liberals assume the following about global politics: 1States are not the only important actors in global politics. Non-state actors such as multinational corporations and advocacy groups are also significant sources of agency and change. 2The state is in decline. Borders are increasingly permeable and governments have less control over economic activity, information, and social activity. 3Global politics is characterized by interdependence, not by anarchy. Interdependence is growing, reflected in increased trade, financial, social, and communications flows around the world. 4International institutions matter. Institutions bind states into mutual commitments and obligations that are costly to break. 5War and failed efforts at cooperation are the result of bad decision making and bad policies by l eaders and governments. 28 Liberals do not share the realist view of the primacy of hard power. For liberals, the effective deployment of power can also depend on soft power. 29 Soft power: Elements of state power -- such as ideological attractiveness, culture, information capacity, and education -- that have traditionally been disregarded (especially by realists) in favor of military or economic strength. 30 Soft power has enabled Canada to provide limited leadership on issues such as peacekeeping, the movement to ban land mines, and sanctions against South Africa during the apartheid era. 31 Apartheid: Racial separation policy in South Africa until the early 1990s. 1This view of soft power rejects the hard-power perspective advanced by realists. 32 Three popular variants of liberalism remain in circulation today: complex interdependence, liberal institutionalism, and democratic peace theory. 33 Idealists and liberals have much in common, including the desire for stronger institutions to facilitate global cooperation. Liberal institutionalism focuses on the impact of formal international organizations in global politics. 34 Other forms of cooperation, such as informal agreements or associations, are often called regimes, which can be defined as sets of principles, norms, rules, and decision-making procedures around which actors’ expectations converge. Critical Perspectives: 35 There are two central ways critical theories challenge the more mainstream variations of realism and liberalism described above. 36 The first involves a rejection of central values, or lack of values, posited by the realist and liberal frameworks, emphasizing concerns with social justice that neither mainstream approach can adequately embrace. 37 The second is an epistemological rejection of the orthodoxy of positivism, or the belief that we can take adequate stock of the world through empirical observation and the testing of hypotheses. Marxism: 38 The origins of Marxism lie in the writing of Karl Marx (1818-83) 39 Karl Marx studied law and philosophy and wrote about history. 40 Marxism itself is a branch of thought emerging from the French Revolution, the British Industrial Revolution, and German philosophy. 41 Marx insisted on a materialist world-view, asserting that throughout history the political nature of society was determined by its economic structure. 42 For Marx, the economic structure of society in his time was characterized by capitalism. As a result, society was divided into classes, on the basis of their relationship to the means of production in a capitalist system. 43 The bourgeoisie owned the factories and the land, and governed society in their own interests. It is this class which controlled technology, invention, natural resources, and property systems and dominated religious, philosophical, governmental, legal, and moral values. 1bourgeoisie: An originally French term for the middle or merchant class. It became a derogatory term with its adoption by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels to represent the owners of the means of production and the class enemy of the proletariat(workers) 44 The proletariat did not own any means of production and were forced to sell their labour to the bourgeoisie in return for payment. 45 For Marx, this social structure was inherently exploitative and unjust. 46 According to Marxism, classes are the social engines of history. 47 Neo-Marxists and dependency theorists share several assumptions and views regarding global politics: 1The most important actors in global politics are dominant economic interests or socioeconomic classes. 2Both the state and war are largely (though not exclusively) instruments of the ruling economic classes. 3States (and their ruling elites) are bound into a hierarchical structural relationship characterized by patterns of dominance and dependence. 4A wide differential in power exists between the rich and the poor, and this is related to their relationship to the means of production in national and global economies. 5For the marginalized and dependent states and peoples everywhere, revolution and the overthrow of the world capitalist system are the only hope for change. Feminism: 48 It is a broad intellectual, political, and social movement that cuts across a wife variety of academic disciplines and social discourse. 49 The primary focus of feminism is how gender matters. 50 Feminists assert that gender has largely been ignored due to assumptions that a universal human experience exists, when in fact these assumptions have been based exclusively on the male experience. 51 In particular, feminists seek to expose the ways in which inequality and injustice are gendered, and seek to describe the nature of the patriarchal(male dominated) systems that perpetuate the marginalization and oppression of women. 52 Feminist scholarship is also directed toward the advancement of women, in the form of legal and political equality and economic and social inclusion. 53 Liberal feminists argue that women’s participation in world affairs has been silenced or marginalized and that this situation must be corrected. 54 Liberal feminists argue the central injustice is the lack of women in positions of authority. 55 Radical feminists submit that merely bringing women into existing institutions and structures would be insufficient and deeper changes are therefore necessary. 56 Radical feminists the entire state and international apparatus is based on patriarchal ideologies that perpetuate cycles of violence and environmental destruction. 57 Socialist or Marxist feminists assert that the capitalist system is patriarchal in character and privileges men and marginalizes women. The solution is to alter the character of the economic system of society toward socialist theories emphasizing equality and redistributive justice. 58 Postcolonial feminists offer perspectives based on the unique experiences of women in the developing or postcolonial world, experiences grounded in racism, class discrimination, and cultural exclusion. They often criticize liberal feminists for assuming a universality to the female experience and ignoring the unique characteristics and issues confronting women of different backgrounds, particularly in the non-Western world. 59 Ecofeminists link violence against women with violence against nature, and argue we need to transcend both to achieve a more just and sustainable world. 60 The feminist perspective operates at two levels. 1First the argument is made that the role women play in global politics and economics is essential and must be recognized in any salient analysis. 2Second there is a rejection of the dominant realist values and an emphasis on the values of self-worth, community development, cooperation, peace, and sustainable development. Global Ecopolitical Theory: 61 Many varieties of global ecopolitical theories exist, some of which stress dealing with overpopulation, overconsumption, pollution, or the threat to endangered species with an institutionalist, regime management approach. 62 CHECK CHART ON PAGE 26 The Positivist/Post-Positivist Distinction and Constructivism: 63 Critical theories are separated not only by more explicit concerns with social justice issues, but also by their tendency to reject the positivist foundations of liberalism and realism. 64 Post modernists are primarily concerned with how people interpret the world around them and how they act on this understanding; 65 Another approach is constructivism. Constructivism is one of the dominant paradigms/critical theories of international relations discipline, suggesting that the social construction of dominant ideas, including anarchy and conflict has a decisive role in the outcome of events. May be associated with a liberal or a radical/critical perspective. 66 Constructivists like to argue that there is much more room for actors to effect change in global politics. They are skeptical of the idea that enduring realities or continuities or structures determine the behavior of actors. For ex, take the realist concept of anarchy, which according to realists exerts pressure on decision makers to act in a certain way. The Historical Perspective: 67 Historians who study global politics approach the discipline from a different perspective. They argue that international relations scholarship has emphasized the development of theories and models, while deemphasizing the importance of historical research and knowledge. 68 This has led to the development of theory based on historical generalizations that are at the very least highly contentious and at worse completely inaccurate. 69 They argue that a deeper understanding of history is needed if we are to truly comprehend the subject matter of international relations. Embracing Theoretical Diversity: 70 At this point it would be inaccurate to say that any one perspective dominates the study of global politics. 71 Realism certainly held sway in the US for much of the Cold War era, but liberal perspectives are at least as prominent today and have often been so in the UK, Australia, and Canada. 72 Critical perspectives are as popular as ever, especially among graduate students and in the Southern Hemisphere. 73 There has been a growing interest in constructivism in recent years. POL114: Lecture 2, Sep. 18,2013 Approaches to the study of IR/Global politics Realism:  Realists see the world as a collection of sovereign states in constant competition for  power and security, raison d’etat ­analogy to Thomas Hobbes “State of Nature” in which life is nasty brutish and  short ­human nature: selfish/evil ­Anarchy,  economic interdependence will not lead to peace ­self help ­balance of power ­security dillema ­0 Sum Game Any gain in security/power of one player is a loss to others ­central problem is avoiding war ­relevant actors are states ­outlook: pessimism ­policy: increase power (military and economic) Liberalism: Liberals don’t reject the description of the international system of realist but argue that  just as anarchy was overcome through the creation of  the rule of law within states, it can  be overcome through increased cooperation and the development of international  institutions globally ­human nature: good/ cooperative but corruptible ­central problem: encouraging cooperation ­global politics is a multiple sum game (cooperation > win/win>peace) ­relevant actors: states, MNC’s, international organizations, NGO’s… ­motives: rational self interest, justice, peace, prosperity… ­outlook: optimism ­policy: increase trade, develop institutions ­Immanuel Kant and democratic peace theory­idealism Critical perspectives Marxism/Dependency/World systems Theory Just as Marx viewed capitalist societies as based on an exploitative class system  (capitalism) modern Marxists see the world as defined by an exploitative system of core  states which dominate the dependent states of the periphery. ­central problem: exploitation, marginalization, imperialism, neo­colonialism… ­human nature: humans have no nature only a history (depends on circumstances) ­relevant actors: classes, groups, MNC’s, states ­motives:greed, power, liberation, justice… ­outlook: pessimism in the absence of revolution ­policy: promote revolutionary change overthrowing capitalism> socialism Environmentalism: So far environmenalism has not produced a coherent view of global politics however  increasingly the issues of environmental destruction, scarcity, overpopulation, climate  change… are having a tremendous impact on global politics.  The dominant paradigms  have thus far not incorporated these issues into their world view convincingly. Feminism: It is also difficult to identify a consistent feminist view of world politics.   Feminists have  none the less offered very insightful critiques of the dominant paradigms  The emergence of the “Westphalian System of States” Five centuries of history in less than two hours What is a State?: ­states occupy a defined territory ­possess a permanent population (citizenship v. nomads…) ­sovereignty: free from interference by other states in their internal affairs ­diplomatically recognized by other states ­possess a monopoly on the legitimate use of force coercion and violence both within and  outside of their territory Origin of States: social contracts v. extraction and coercion cycle Contract Model: prior to the 18  century states seldom sought and rarely received support  of it’s population.  (Subjects v. Citizens) ­modern states (U.S., U.K.) are the result of a contract between citizens and government:  constitutions… Extraction coercion cycle: ­1640, Fredrick William of Prussia controlled 1300 mercenaries, no administration,  bureaucracy… ­1688, Brandenburg Prussia: standing army of 30,000 and administrative organizations ­1700’s Fredrick William I King of Prussia: 80,000 standing army, extensive bureaucracy,  system of tax collection… Charles Tilly: War Making and State Making as Organized Crime. War making : eliminating or neutralizing external wielders of power State making: eliminating or neutralizing domestic wielders of power Protection: eliminating or neutralizing competitors of clients within and outside of  territory Extraction: obtaining resources for the above Peace of Wesphalia 1648 Spread of Westphalian System: Colonialism Colonialism defined, Immanuel Wallerstein:   ­the search by European States for regions rich enough to be expoited and weak enough  to be conquered/dominated ­Spain and Portugal and the Americas: Jackpot ­British colonial expansion ­French, Dutch, Belgian, German… colonial expansion ­The scramble for Africa and the Berlin Conference of 1884 ­The idea of the “Nation State”, nationalism and the French Revolution ­The Concert of Europe ­WWI,  ­The treaty of Versaille, The League of Nations, collective security, Great Depression ­WWII­ “Total War” Chapter 2 notes: History and Global Politics: War and Peace An introduction to the role of history: ­ Why history is significant. o  Allows better understanding and reasoning of current issues/problems. o Provides PRESEPECTIVE, we can see other viewpoints into an issue and  why it is as such. In this chapter we will highlight 3 key themes in the relationship between politics and  history: 1) The history of war and conflict, rise or regimes. 2) Developments in history that have had a defining impact on the development of  theories on war and peace. 3) History reveals the importance of ideas as driving forces of change and conflict. The ancient legacy: The rise and fall of civilizations and empires: Middle east: ­ Civilization developed around 3500 B.C.E o In the basis of three river systems o Tigris, Nile, and Indus. ­ In ancient civilizations revenue from taxing and rents tended to go to war. ­ The decline of Rome is studied in great deal as it is compared to the US. ­Rome declined due to excessive interest in power. Key figures: Niccolo Machiavelli:  “Rulers must do what is in the best interest of the state; to do otherwise would in fact be  immoral.” ­ During the 15  and 16  century was the era of Europe exploration. o This resulted in more trading partners and greater European influence in  other parts of the world. ­ This created Europe as a threat and the trade and political violence became  inseparable. Thomas Hobbes: ­ His most famous work was the leviathan. ­ A state or ruler is needed as an authortian figure to govern society as without one  society would go into anarchy.  ­ In the middle east: o After the fall of Rome the expansion of Islam was brought. o The success of the expansion of Islam within a century was due to the  weakness of the post Roman World. o The Ottoman empire remained a world power until World War 1. ­ In Asia: o Civilization began with the development of first agricultural, hunting and  fishing communities around 4000 B.C.E o Shang Dynasty = First historical dynasty in China (1700­1100 B.C.E) o In 1122­ 221 B.C.E the shang dynasty was replaced by the Chou dynasty. ­ In Africa: o Kingdom of Kush dominated from 900 B.C.E to 400 C.E o Iron age civilizations developed in Africa by 100 C.E o Africa had a thriving trading system with many of the European countries. o In 1800 most of Africa became independent except for the areas held by  the Ottoman Empire. The modern state and peace of Westphalia: ­ The modern international system is also referred to as the Westphalia state system. o The peace of Westphalia ended the 30 years war in Europe in 1648, and  established a new order in Europe. ­ This is a significant benchmark as it the foundations for a modern state. ­ The year 1648 is significant to split medieval Europe and Modern Europe ­ The POW established the constitutional, legal status of states as territorial entities. ­ The territorial state was sovereign, free to determine and practice its own  domestic affairs.  Why did this chance occur?? ­ Weakened church power by the splits in Christendom ­ The horrors of the thirty years war. ­ The hope that devastating religious conflicts (thirty years war) could be prevented  if domestic affairs of territorial units were recognized as the exclusive reserve of  the rulers of states. The nature of Modern State: State: ­ Occupy a defined territory ­ They posses a permanent population ­ Diplomatically recognized by other states. ­ The posses a monopoly on the legitimate use of force within their territories. ­ They are sovereign with respect to other states. (Free from interference from  international affairs). States vs Nation: State: Autonomous institutional and legal structure that governs a defined territory.  Nation: Refers to people who posses a shared sense of common descent and unifying  ethnic, and religious characteristics. The rise of European Empires: th th ­ The defining features of the 17  and 18  century were European Imperialism. ­ France was the most powerful state in Europe during the mid to late 1600’s ­ Prussia and Austria seeked dominance in the vulnerable 300 small principalities  and city­states that were fragments of the Holy Roman Empire. th ­ Revolts rocks Europe in the 18  century due to the age of enlightenment. o People wanted to move away from tradition o Seek more independence (born a peasant, stay a peasent.) ­ The most significant revolt was the one that took place in the United States. ­ The  French revoln took place from 1789­ 94 o Due to worker and peasant uprising. o  The monarch of France collapsed and instead a republic was established.  The ideas of this revoln spread across Europe and consisted of  equality before the law, the abolition of feudalism, and the “rights  of the man.”   The revoln sparked the development of modern nationalism. • The revoln died out in 1799 by the rule of a 30 year old  general called Napolean Bonaparte. ­ By the 19  century the nature of European Imperialism was beginning to change. o Instead of being driven by new trade routes, precious metals and slaves,  now what was being focused on was the search for raw materials and  marked for products and territorial competition between the imperial  powers. ­ Between 1880 and 1914 The European Empires and 1/5  of the worlds surface to  their colonial possession. Colonial Rule: Imposition of arbitrary political boundaries, a profound dislocation in  local patterns of commerce, and the dominance of colonial administration. United States: ­ After the War the US continued to expand with the purchase of Alaska from  Russia. o And terriotorial gains through annexation or conquest in the Pacific  ( Hawaii, Samoa, Midway and the Phillippines) o By 1914 the US was one of the world leading powers. o Patterns in the History of War and Peace: ­ War is historically inevitable there are however short term agreements that are  done on the basis of short term need or convenience (Trading). ­ Rise and fall of empires: o Emergence or decline of a certain leader. o Empires have always been subject to conquest by other empires. o Many empires suffer from internal decline due to a combination of  economic failure, social decay, and the costs associated with the growing  territory. ­ History is written by the winners. ­ Rise of political geography and geopolitics. World War 1: ­ Started by the assassination of heir to the throne of the Austro­ Hungarian empire. ­ Although this may have started the war, the tensions were from long before . o This was due to the triple entente of great Britain, France and Russia and  the Triple alliance of Germany, Austria­Hungary and Italy.  Navy arm race between Germany and Britain ­ Germany attacked France through neutral Belgium o Attacking through neutral Belgium brought Great Britain into war. ­ The German decision to expand the submarine campaign brought the US into the  war against Germany on April 6  1917. ­ On June 28  1919 Germany signed the treaty of Versailles. Consequences: ­ More than 13 million people killed, millions more wounded. ­ This idea of an entire society and not just the opposing army became an enemy. ­ The bitterness of the treaty towards Germany later caused the up rise of Hitler and  the Nazi party (we did Nazi that one coming) ­ Fear of the Russian revoln was wide spread due to concern over the  emergence of Facism. The Inter War period: ­ Pacifist sentiments were wide spread after the war and peace movements such as  the war resisters. ­ Feminist established the “ Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom” ­ The Soviet Union was established in 1922. ­ In 1937 Japan invaded China ­ The league of nations failed to respond to many of the international events: o Japan invasion of China o Italy annexed Albania in 1939 o Germany annexed Austria into third Reich World War 2: ­ In august 1939 Nazi Germany and Soviet Union signed the Nazi­Soviet  nonaggression pact. st o This was so Hitler could invade Poland which he did in 1939 Sep 1 .  Shared the gains with the Soviet Union ­ Britain and France honored their pledge to Poland and declared war on Germany. ­ German forces conquered Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, and Belgium.  o Paris fell in June 1940 ­ In January, 1945 a final offensive was launched by the Red Army aimed at Berlin. o Germany surrendered unconditionally.  ­ First authorized use of Atomic bomb which was dropped on Hiroshima and the  second was dropped on Nagasaki. o Probably the most controversial thing. Causalities: ­ 15 million combatants and 35 million civilians killed. ­ The war ushered in the Nuclear era. ­ 2 new world powers emerged. The US and Russia. History, Alliances, and The Balance of Power Concept: ­ Concept of balance power: o If the power of a state or a group of state grows, other states in the system  will balance against this growing power.  1. Increase own power  2. Engage in alliances with other states.  ­ Alliances are referred to ass collective defense arrangements.  Coalitions: Arrangements that are not formalized in treaties and tend to be of  shorter duration. Cohesive alliances: One with a high degree of shared interest and coordination among its  members, and tend to be formally institutionalized.  Polarity: The distribution of power.  Three different kinds of polarity: 1. Multi polar: Three – Seven independent centers or poles that a relatively equal in  power.   ­ Can be argued to be stable due to all of the centers, or unstable due to all of the  flexibility. 2. Bipolar: Two centers of power. 3. Unipolar: Single center of power. POL114 Lecture #3 The establishment of the Westphalian State System Colonialism defined, Immanuel Wallerstein:   ­the search by European States for regions rich enough to be expoited and weak enough  to be conquered/dominated ­Spain and Portugal and the Americas: Jackpot ­British colonial expansion ­French, Dutch, Belgian, German… colonial expansion ­The scramble for Africa and the Berlin Conference of 1884 ­The idea of the “Nation State”, nationalism and the French Revolution ­The Concert of Europe ­WWI, Wilsonianism “making the world save for democracy”  ­a “nations” right to self­determination   ­The treaty of Versaille, The League of Nations, collective security,  ­Russian Revolution and counterrevolution ­ Great Depression, rise of fascism ­WWII­ “Total War” > Total Devastation: Hamburg, Dresden, Tokyo and Hiroshima The Cold War Beginnings: from alliance to adversaries: U.S. v. USSR Post War Europe:  stability v. accountability ­Germany and the 3 D’s (denazification, demilitarization, democratization)  > collective guilt ­partition (Berlin Airlift…Wall) ­Marshall Plan v. reparations ­Greece, Turkey, Italy…Japan, China, Korea,  ­NATO v. Warsaw Pact 4 Dimensions of the Cold War: ­ideological dimension: communist/socialist east v. capitalist/democratic west Krushchev: “We will bury you!” ­Soviet system is more progressive and rational? ­3X # of engineering graduates in USSR than US ­defeat of Germany in WWII ­Sputnic ­H­Bomb ­athletics… West: higher standard of living ­cultural freedoms (speech, organization…) ­man on the moon ­geopolitical dimension: Halford MacKinder v. Alfred Theyer Mahan ­The heartland and the USSR: ideally situated to spread influence outward ­The rim­land and sea power: USSR surrounded on all sides, ports, sea  power… British, French, Portuguese, Belgian, Dutch Empires… ­strategic dimension: nuclear deterrence ­Arms Race > MAD > US and USSR both had over 30,000 nuclear  weapons, enough to destroy every major city on the planet 10 times ­first and second strike capacity ­détente: SALT, START, ABM ­Star Wars and the Strategic Defense Innitiative ­international dimension: containment v. rollback ­decolonization and the UN ­of rotten apples and dominoes: “Proxi Wars” Korea, Cuba, Vietnam,  Indonesia, East Timor, Nicaragua, South Africa, Angola… ­beginning the roll back: Poland, Afghanistan… East Germany Collapse of the USSR: Who won the Cold War? ­Mikhail Gorbachov: Glasnost and Perestroika? ­Imperial Overstretch? ­Domestic Decline? ­Arms Race? ­Chernobyl? ­triumph of democracy and markets? Chapter 3: The Cold War and Foreign PolicyAnalysis Cold war dominated global politics for over 40 years. Many citizens from every state were at risk by the nuclear arm race. If nuclear war had occurred Canadians would have been in the crossfire of this horrid act. -Ideologies of the communist command economies (second world) Democratic liberal capitalism (first world). The cold war was a comprehensive ideological, geopolitical, military and international rivalry between the superpowers. The cold war never became a “hot war.” The vast military capabilities of the superpowers never directly fought each other. The cold war was fought in the international arena through the following diplomacy, ideological rhetoric, arms races, regional proxy wars and interventions, and the competitions for allies and military bases around the world. Cold war can also be referred to as “ Long peace” (1946-1991). The cold war was characterized by periods of high tension and crisis between the superpowers, there were some periods of a relative relaxation of tensions and increased levels of cooperation “Détente” means where both countries sought restraint and increased cooperation in their relations with each other. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) which bound its member to come to the assistance of any member should it be attacked. ( USAAND CANADAIN IT)This alliance was built against the threat by the soviet union. The Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO) or Warsaw Pact. Joined the countries of eastern Europe with the soviet union in alliance against NATO. THE IDEOLOGICALDIMENSION Cold war was a rivalry between two antagonistic political, economic and social systems. The longer the cold war went on the ideological intensity of the superpower competition receded, as did the hostility of the rhetoric between two counties. When Ronald Reagan became president of the United States the cold war intensified. THE GEOPOLITICALDIMENSION As cold war intensified geography played an important part in the strategic and foreign policy decisions of Washington and Moscow. THE STATEGIC DIMENSION Both superpowers and their respective allies had large amounts of conventional military forces during the cold war. Money and time were devoted to the maintenance of these forces and their training, equipment modernization and deployment around the world. In the late 1980’s the size of conventional military forces immense. Europe was host to large armies for the NATO but even larger armies to the Warsaw Pact. The nuclear weapon was a great development during the war history. Deterrence: is a policy of preventing or discouraging an action by confronting an opponent or opponents with risks they are unwilling to take. The actor doing the deterring is deferrer and the actor being deterred is a deterree. Deterrence by denial: Deterree will not start a war because they are convinced it will not achieve anything. Deterrence by punishment:Adeterree will not start a war because of the threat that they will receive. Strategic arms limitation treaty (SALT) Strategic arms reduction treaty (START) Intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) Submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) Antiballistic missiles (ABMs) Page 84 reference chart, go over and review. THE INTERNATIONAL DIMENSION: Page 86 read the article “Canada and the cold war” Marshall plan was launched by the United States this program is to rebuild the financial problems in the Western Europe. During the rest of the cold war, the Soviet Union devoted one third of its army resources to guarding the Sino soviet frontier. 1950 Korean war broke out when communist North Korea attacked South Korea. In response the US sent forces to South Korea. 1979 another cold war crisis erupted when the soviet union invadedAfghanistan. THE END OFTHE COLD WAR: Then end of the cold war removed the shadow of the superpower rivalry and brought these trends from back burner if international relations to the front of the international agenda. Soviet Union experienced increased economic stagnation during the rule of leonid Brezhnev. Mikhail Gorbachev came to power problems with the SU were at large. Gorbachev solutions to these problems was to implement a reform program based on three elements. Glasnost (openness) to broaden the boundaries of acceptable political discussion, perestroika( restructuring) reorganize the old economic system Review profile 3.5 on page 94. For almost half a century the cold war defined global politics. The cold war affected domestic politics as well. Cold war was the foundation of the foreign policies of most states. Tension and conflict around the world either originated in the Cold war. Berlin airlift and the Cuban Missile crisis were direct result of Cold War tensions between the superpowers. The Cold war fed an interest in the history and politics of the SU and Kremlinology became an important area of study. Cold war was characterized by periods of high tension, crises, proxy wars and conventional and nuclear arms race between the superpowers and their allies. WHY DID THE SOVIET UNION COLLAPSE? Avictory for containment: USSR spent too much money that it was in debt. Soviet imperial overstretch: USSR took way too much commitments. The cost of these commitments drew already scarce resources out of the country, these resources that could have been used to reinvirgorate the soviet economy. The Economic and social decline of the USSR: the accepted explanation of the SU failing is that the communist simply did not work very well. Consumers suffered from shortage of even basic goods and endured long line ups for food items. The Failure of GORBACHEV’s: Mikhail Gorbachev is the main reason why the collapse of USSR. Due too poorly reformed program The Triumph of Democracy: and the market. The communist system didn’t work well. Many flaws. Steps in policy making: 1) The external environment 2) The internal environment 3) The perceptions of the decision makers. 4)The decision making process 5) The time constraints Page 100 to review Models that are used to make decisions: The rational actor model argues that the decision makers make decisions in a rational fashion The bureaucratic politics models: suggest that decisions outputs are the result of competition and bargaining among different organizations of government. Ratiomnal model has four steps Recognize and identify the problem Establish objectives and aims Establish options Select an option Perception plays a crucial role n decision making process. Two levels: the level of the individual and the level of the group or organization. POL114 Lecture #4 The Cold War Beginnings: from alliance to adversaries: U.S. v. USSR Post War Europe:  stability v. accountability ­Germany and the 3 D’s (denazification, demilitarization, democratization)  > collective guilt ­partition (Berlin Airlift…Wall) ­Marshall Plan v. reparations ­Greece, Turkey, Italy…Japan, China, Korea,  ­NATO v. Warsaw Pact 4 Dimensions of the Cold War: ­ideological dimension: communist/socialist east v. capitalist/democratic west Krushchev: “We will bury you!” ­Soviet system is more progressive and rational? ­3X # of engineering graduates in USSR than US ­defeat of Germany in WWII ­Sputnic ­H­Bomb ­athletics… West: higher standard of living ­cultural freedoms (speech, organization…) ­man on the moon ­geopolitical dimension: Halford MacKinder v. Alfred Theyer Mahan ­The heartland and the USSR: ideally situated to spread influence outward ­The rim­land and sea power: USSR surrounded on all sides, ports, sea  power… British, French, Portuguese, Belgian, Dutch Empires… ­strategic dimension: nuclear deterrence ­Arms Race > MAD > US and USSR both had over 30,000 nuclear  weapons, enough to destroy every major city on the planet 10 times ­first and second strike capacity ­détente: SALT, START, ABM ­Star Wars and the Strategic Defense Innitiative ­international dimension: containment v. rollback ­decolonization and the UN ­of rotten apples and dominoes: “Proxi Wars” Korea, Cuba, Vietnam,  Indonesia, East Timor, Nicaragua, South Africa, Angola… ­beginning the roll back: Poland, Afghanistan… East Germany Collapse of the USSR: Who won the Cold War? ­Mikhail Gorbachov: Glasnost and Perestroika? ­Imperial Overstretch? ­Domestic Decline? ­Arms Race? ­Chernobyl? ­triumph of democracy and markets? Continuing relevance of the Cold War ­ideology: China, Cuba, Vietnam, Venezuela and the continuing appeal of  socialism ­geopolitics: NATO expansion, Russian responses (Georgia, Syria, Iran…Edward  Snowden and the NSA leaks) ­strategic: U.S. and Russian nuclear arsenals; spread of WMD’s ­international: from east­west conflict to north­south conflict Politics and Economics Why where there no economists before 1776? ­economics part of moral philosophy ­no autonomous economic realm; political power and economic power overlapped Adam Smith and the rise of “capitalist relations of production” (the market system) ­The Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations ­division of labour > efficiency > wealth ­role of markets, self interests, incentives ­GDP/GNP as measure of wealth (developed, developing and underdeveloped  states) ­as key indicator of health of the economy (recession, depression, growth…) ­standard of living v. quality of life What is Capitalism: “Greed is Good” ­Capital (Robert Heilbronner) M­C­M1: the process of turning money into  commodities to be sold for money (M>L,RM,mashines>products>profits) ­business climate, stability… David Landes: Chain Reaction of Industrialization ­industrialization and the transformation of U.K. > colonialism > globalization ­late industrializers: France, Germany, Japan, U.S., USSR… ­”modernization” W.W. Rostow: stages of Economic Development ­rise of MNC’s ­growing disparities ­the Bretton Woods system Approaches to International Political Economy ­realist: relative v. absolute gains, 0 sum Game?, mercantilism, balance of trade,  protectionism ­liberalism: comparative advantage, complex inter­ dependency, Keynsianism, institutionalism ­Marxism: Leninism, dependency theory, world systems theory ­global eco­politics: Ghandi: “It took half the resources of the planet to  industrialize England. How many planets will it take to industrialize  India?”capitalism (growth) undermining global ecology > environmental conflict?  Stationary State? CHAPTER 4 Pg 116-133 Economic Politics Ascendant? 1 The ascendence of political economy issues in global politics can be attributed to the following factors: 1increasing global interdependence. It became visibly evident by the 1960s that economic activity in the form of trade, financial flows, and monetary policies, facilitated by advances in communications technology, was linking the economies of states to an unprecedented extent. 2The decline of the US economy. For much of the early Cold War, The US was the world’s only economic superpower (The closest competitor was the Soviet Union, with an economy half the size of the US economy). However, in the latter half of the Cold War, the US economy entered a period of what some describe as decline, and many observers concluded that the era of US economic dominance was over. 3The rise of other state economies. During the Cold War, other states recovered from the devastation of WW2 and became increasingly important actors. The economies of Western Europe and Japan emerged as economic centers of power, and several countries in East Asia --led by the Tigers of Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, and South Korea -- experienced high levels of economic growth. 4The rise of multinational corporations (MNCs). The emergence of MNCs --corporations with operations in several countries -- as major economic actors. There are over 60,000 MNCs in the world economy, accounting for approximately one-third of world trade. 5The Oil Shock. In 1960, a group of oil producing states formed the Organization of the petroleum Exporting countries(OPEC) to coordinate their oil production. Their objective was to resist pressure from consuming countries for lower prices and to ensure steady oil revenues for producers. 6European Integration. In 1951, France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg formed the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) to coordinate their production and trade policy in these sectors. 7Growing awareness of global disparities. While poverty and wealth disparity predate the modern world economy, the wave of decolonization in the post WW2 period led to the creation of a large number of newly independent countries that for the most part were ill prepared to meet the economic challenges they faced. 8The collapse of the Soviet Union. The fall of the Soviet Union dramatically illustrated the importance of economics as a foundation for state power. Realist Approaches to IPE: Mercantilism and Economic Nationalism: 2The foundations of realist thought, with its emphasis on the state and the survival and security of the state in an anarchic international environment. 3The state is the most important actor in international economic affairs, and states act to secure and advance their economic interests defined in terms of economic power. This is critical because economic power is regarded primarily as a foundation of state power. 4Realists argue that states are concerned with relative gains in economic strength across states. So if country A and B both experience gains in wealth but state A experiences a greater gain in wealth than state B, it is this relative gain that matters in terms of the power relationship between these two states. 5Realists thus tend to see the world economy as a zero-sum competition. which means that gains experienced by one state are a proportionate loss to another. 6Therefore, relative gains and economic competition are crucial components of the struggle for survival and power among states. 7This focus on the state in IPE does not mean realists completely dismiss the relevance of non-state actors such as MNCs or NGOs. However, since these actors must operate in an international system with regulations defined by states, non-state actors do not possess the kind of power or significance that liberals would ascribe to them. 8Realists argue that international economic organizations are built and managed by states, especially the most powerful states, and as such are primarily forums for state action and arenas for state competition. 9States cooperate on trade and financial matters because of the need for self-help: when the interests of states converge, cooperation is possible. When the interests of states diverge, cooperation is not possible, and conflict is likely. Liberal Approaches to IPE: Classical Liberalism, Keynesianism, and Institutionalism 10 The principles of economic liberalism form the foundation of the contemporary global economy, including the international trade system and its related organizations such as the World Trade Organization(WTO). 11 Liberal economics have also determined the shape of the international monetary system. 12 MNCs, as well as smaller firms, conduct their global economic affairs in accordance with liberal market principles. 13 The predominant development strategy directed at LDCs is based on liberal approaches to the generation of wealth and the promotion of economic growth. 14 It is not an exaggeration to suggest that a liberal orthodoxy has dominated and theoretical and policy discourse on global economic affairs. 15 The foundation of the liberal approach to IPE rests on the work of Adam Smith (1723-90), most specifically in his classic work an Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Smith’s writings were motivated by his opposition to mercantilism, which he argued was not only poor economics, but also a source of “discord and animosity” in international affairs. Marxist Approaches To IPE: Dependency Theory, And World-System Theory: 16 Marxism is grounded by a historical materialist view: economic developments have driven political developments in world history. 17 Marxism is an evolutionary perspective based on transitions from one mode of production to another, holding in common the exploitation of a poor, politically subordinate peasant or working class by a rich, politically dominant landowning or factory-owning class. 18 History is the history of class struggle, as the subordinate class struggles to achieve its liberation from oppression and exploitation. 19 In capitalist systems -- the dominant mode of production in modern times -- the bourgeoise dominates and exploits the proletariat. 20 The state is merely an instrument of the bourgeoise: it is used to maintain their power and privilege, and authorities employed by the state are socialized to adopt conducive values. 21 For Marx, this exploitation cannot end until the capitalist system, the economic foundation of the political order, is overthrown in a revolution of the proletariat that will usher in a classless society free from inequality and therefore free of social conflict. Feminist, Ecopolitical, And Constructivist Approaches To IPE: 22 From a feminist perspective, the evolution of the global economy has marginalized women and placed them in a condition
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