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Political Science

Environmentalism Liberalists o Increased cooperation on environmental issues o Complex and growing network of international institutions and regimes is evolving give us the capacity to deal with environmental problems while the world economy continues to grow o States have shown a willingness to reach agreements on water managements, pollution, fishing disputes, without resorting to military force Realists o “Utilizable resources” o Increase source of conflict in the future o Environmental degradation will not alter the nature of world politics but lead to increased conflict and wars between states and people in environmentally stressed regions o Resource wars over oil, water & arable land o Environment prominent feature of political power Ex. China & India • Increased bargaining power world frightened of global environmental impact of mass industrialization • Leverage on future negotiations on pollution treaties Marxists o Deforestation and soil degradation part of a process of capitalism exploitation in the periphery o No final answer to environmental problems until exploitative elites that dominate the capitalist system are overthrown and capitalism itself is replaced Eco-feminist www.notesolution.com o Destruction of habitat instruction of patriarchy Globalization - Substantial economic growth since 1945 - The Gap between the wealthy and the poor never greater - Poor nations are burdened /w external debt, poverty, unsustainable agricultural and industrial process -In addition the poverty the citizens are living in sickening conditions - The divergence of wealth is central idea in Global Pol. - However, Convergence can be seen between North America and Europe - Globalization is based on liberal economic theory Realists o see the world as a struggle between states for preservation and power o IPE economic nationalism will prevail , states will cooperate in the world/economy when it is in their interests to do so , but frequently they will be in conflict or competition o Governments are primarily concerned with the health & security of the nation state itself economic power is simply a means of maintaining or increasing the power o Maintenance of protectionalists trade barriers the provision of subsides & tax benefits to crucial industries and economic sectors , the disagreement between states in world and regional trade talks and the existence of trade ware ( Ex. US & European Union Steel Dispute 2004 ) as evidence that the world economy is a competitive arena in which states pursue their interests o Realists argue we can expect only limited progress from world and regional trade talks from financial institutions & trade organizations www.notesolution.com • These institutions and organizations are controlled by the state and beneath layer of liberal principles most states most of the time will pursue their own interests first and foremost • THEREFORE failure to reach trade and financial agreements gap between rich and the poor & existence of trade wars -believe that states will take part in “neo mercantilism” when it benefits them - Governments are primarily concerned w/ health and security of their states -Having power over the economy is a way of having global power -Examples can be seen w/: the protectionist trade barriers, provisions of subside and tax benefits to industrial and economic sectors in which states pursue self interests -This explains failure to reach trade agreements (1), the persistent economic gap between the North and South (2), and the existence of war (3) Liberalists/Idealists o Individuals, households, firm maximizing their opportunity to pursue mutually beneficial exchange in the global marketplace o Through competitive advantage a world supporting the principles of free trade will gather the benefits of the efficient us of capital and resources o Institutions of the world economy were built by states in accordance with these liberal economic principles & through tariff reduction , nondiscrimination, national treatment and the harmonization of regulations , a rule based trade and financial system has emerged o Positive development greater cooperation & economic interdependence a wealthier & less warlike world can be built www.notesolution.com o NEOLIBERALS o state should pay a minimal managerial role in economic affairs more state intervention will create more obstacles in the market activity o extract the state from as much of the economic realm as possible , and many of those who espouse globalization believe state interference is but a hindrance to a more rational , less global society o rational actors will converge in common institutions and regimes to facilitate this process o VS. Kenyesian Liberals there needs to be more intervention by states in the global economy & especially more of an effort to manage global economy in the interest of poor countries & poverty reduction • world economy being driven into disaster by neoliberal agency which has captured international financial institutions & allied itself with the interests of big corporations -Idealists seeliberal economy where individuals, households and firms try to maximize their opportunity to pursue mutual benefits -States were built through economic liberalism principles - Through development, greater co-operation and interdependence emerge which adheres to a harmonized and warless world. -Some liberals argue that governments should play no role in economics and let it regulate itself -Globalization only gets hindered by states interference, causing obstacles -Globalization is a rational; less nationalistic global society -Multi-national organizations (MNO’s) will regulate the process of globalization which is known as “global governance” -Some people disagree w/ global governance and demand that government should regulate the economy and globalization especially in developing, rural and poverty stricken states; where corporations can over run and manipulate www.notesolution.com the whole state to its will. Essentially black mailing the state’s economic health for compliance Marxists o reject both mercantilist & liberal diagnostic and prescription these interpretations are seen more as shadows / reflections of the real world structure of economy o global economy is characterized by the spread of capitalism , which is defined by a class system in which economic elites dominate and exploit the poor this class structure has spread to global proportions and works to keep the majority of the people poor while the few rich protected by the instrument of the state system, get richer o this system is strengthened by growth of a transnational economic elite which includes exploitative classes in postcolonial states -Marxist believes that globalization is a massive capitalistic system. -Economic elites (North) and the exploited poor (South) -Rich get richer and smaller, while the poor get poorer and larger What is Globalization? -An inevitable trend in the world economy - Began with human communication and will end with GLOBAL liberal democracy and capitalism (a massive unification) (idealists) -Some view it as the last stage of global development m other see it as the spread of western lifestyle. -Globalization is the spread of ideas, means of life, and materials -Globalization= modernization -Globalization is the strong driving “converging” force which adheres with/to the Western model www.notesolution.com - Individual sectors get harmed or worsened for the overall populations benefit; this always happens when political/economical paradigms shift. -The global market of the western way has become so strong that is outperforms all challengers (Marxist) Multi-national Corporations -Globalization gave birth or came together with MNO’s -Through MNO’s globalization can have a greater impact -Companies try to sell their product in other states and grow which allows them to do the same in other states. -The product influences a certain lifestyle (predominantly western) and globalization occurs. Arguments against -Globalization is a legal genocide -modernizing a culture is stripping it of its heritage and re vamping its “status quo” -“Marginalization” is the social process of becoming or being made marginal (to relegate or confine to a lower social standing or outer limit or edge, as of social standing); "the marginalization of the underclass"; and many other are some examples. In its most extreme form, marginalization can exterminate groups. - (global-capitalism), immigration, social welfare and policy are broader social structures that have the potential to contribute negatively to one’s access to resources and services, resulting in marginalization of individuals and groups. Globalization impacts the lives of individuals and groups in many capacities with the influx of capitalism, information technology, company outsourcing / job insecurity, and the widening gap between the rich and the poor. -Brings a society to its knees in 3 world countries as companies take advantage of the people, like during the industrial revolution. LECTURE NOTES GLOBALIZATION www.notesolution.com -the decisive change in which we emerged into a global economy ; the fall of the Soviet Union -With the collapse of the Soviet Union influence of capitalism has become global -Positive and irreversible ; globalization -increased the standards of living -distribution of wealth has become squid – growing gap between the rich and the growing poor -23 thousand death resulting from starvation everyday -Rich 20% consume 75% of the production/resources -Literacy (Canada high end 99%- Niger 28.7% of the population is literate) and life expectancy th -GDP – Canada 4 33 thousand & Niger $700 dollars -Desirability of globalization -What is globalization ? When did it really start? -Systems theory; Wholes that consist of a number of elements that the change in one element will cause change in other elements there causing a change in the whole entity – by killing it or making it healthy - Planet earth is a whole ; however human societies have not –through out most of human history human societies ha
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