Pol208 Exam review

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Political Science
Professor Bernstein

what is the difference between a state and a nation? The difference between a state and a nation is that a state is an entity that demonstrates sovereignty, territoriality and population. Its best synonym is country. Sovereignty is an attribute of the state because it should have external autonomy and internal order. Territory is the geographical area that the state has exclusive control A nation on the other hand is a group of people that are bound together by a sense of oneness. Usually it is based on a common history, shared language, heritage, culture etc. Nation states can exists whereby a state consists of citizens who are mainly members of one nation While a state has the legitimacy to rule, a nation may only have self-determination because of a sense of nationalism (nation promoting group goals) which can lead to nation states. Some groups just require fair representation within their pre-existing state. It is more difficult for a state to get this legitimacy States receive this legitimacy because they are recognized by other states States house nations Liberal View State is a process with interests from govt and society. of the State Many national interests which change according to power positions of competing groups Realists View State is autonomous, only constrained by anarchy of intl system of the State Has sovereignty to set goals of national interest defined in terms of power Radical View 2 views of state of the State Instrumental Marxists view sees states as agents of bourgeoisie who react to societal pressures Structural Marxists sees state as operating within capitalist structure, where it expands National interest reflects economic goals Constructivist National interests are neither material nor given, they are ever view of the changing State States share variety of goals and values which are influenced by IGOs and NGOs What is sovereignty de jure and sovereignty de facto? Sovereignty de jure means that a state is subservient to no one, laws made in the US dont affect Canadians. Usually deals with authority of a state, it is externally recognized by others states Sovereignty de facto means that a state is free from external influence. Usually deals with the autonomy of the state. Canada is somewhat influenced by US policy All states have de jure sovereignty, but no state is fully de facto www.notesolution.comLegitimacy, territoriality Territoriality is the states right to control fixed part of earths surface Legitimacy means the right to rule When determining whether a government is legitimate we ask: whether it came to power through due process, whether subjects regard it as having a right to rule and whether other countries regard it as rightful government First 2 are internal aspects, last one is an external aspect When determining whether an institution is legitimate we ask: whether it is viewed as appropriate, whether its rules are justified according to standards recognized by relevant actors, what about justice, fairness, effectiveness. Why is power important for international relations? Why is measuring power difficult? What is the balance of power, why is it important? power is the capacity to get another actor to change its behaviour when it would not do so otherwise. It is an empirical concept you can have natural sources of power (geographic size and position) natural resources as a huge source of power population is seen to give great power status Tangible sources of power: industrial developed states generally have higher education levels, more advanced technologies and more efficient use of capital Intangible sources of power: national image, demonstration of public support and leadership Constructivists see not only tangible and intangible sources of power as important but also the power of ideas and language State can exercise its power through diplomacy (influence other actors), economic statecraft (positive and negative sanctions) and the use of force also what is known as soft power (Joseph Nye) is the ability to get what you want through the use of attraction rather than coercion or payments (deterrence and compellence) ways of getting an actor to change its behaviour: ask, persuade, bargain, threaten or force measuring power is difficult because power resources are not equally tangible, mobilizeable and fungible. Also a states real capabilities are not always the same as its perceived capabilities belief by Kenneth waltz that balance of power is the key to peace balance of power is used in 3 different ways As description- as in during the cold war there was a balance of power between the soviet union and the US As policy- always align with the weaker side as to preserve balance of power As theory- states will always balance themselves Its believed that when one states power increases, states must enhance their own power to protect themselves Balance of power can become unstable when: one state becomes too powerful or when a states rate of power increases so great that others start to fear that they wont be able to balance it. This is the when the greatest danger for war occurs because in the first case you can have danger of a hegemonic war, or in the second case you can have danger of a preventive war www.notesolution.com
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