MidTerm Study Notes

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Political Science
Todd Hall

POL208:Mid-Term Lecture Study Notes Basic Concepts : State: an organized political unit that has a geographic territory, a stable population, and a government to which the population owes allegiance and that is legally recognized by other states. Territory:a portion of the earths surface appropriated by a political community or state Sovereignty: the authority of the state, based on recognition by other states and by non-state actors, to govern matters within its own boarders that affect its people, economy security, and form of government. monopoly over legitimate use of force, can declare war against other states. Two basic concepts of sovereignty Internal government highest authority/ over territory and population External no higher authority or unit above the state Peace of Westphalia: independent sovereign states, the end of the Thirty Years War. is what we claim as the turning point of the old world and the new world, which is similar to the maps we have now. The new world we got independent sovereign states. A new diplomatic arrangement. Old order of overlapping authorities. When prices can be masters of their own place Traditional Empires vs. States: Empires: did not recognize equals, vassal states paid tribute, barbarians to be conquered. States: European colonies wanted independence, created sovereign states, world map is result. Nations: political community with shared characteristics. Claims political self-determination. Nation vs. State: 1. The world is not neatly divided into territorial groups. 2. Social Darwinism Fittest will survive. 3. They are not natural. 2.5% of Italians spoke Italian, the rest were dialects. Power: no one in IR can agree what this is. 1. Power is actor A causing actor B to do something they would not otherwise have done 2. Power as capability: 1. Hard Power threatens: Guns, Money / Resources. 2. Soft Power attracts: Values, Culture. 3. Power as relationship: is contextual. How do you know who's the most powerful. 4. Critical views of power: there is no one universal power against all situations. Levels of Analysis: Three Images (from Waltz's Man, the State, and War) 1. First Image: individuals, human beings, and characteristics of leaders. www.notesolution.com POL208 : Mid-Term Lecture Study Notes 2. Second Image: characteristics of State, dictator of proletariat vs. Liberal democracy, states inside the black box 3. One can see whats outside the box ( not whats on the inside of the box) 4. 5. Third Image: international system, the number of great powers, power transition theory, the state as black box (how big they are, military force, etc.), billiard balls (doesn't matter the stripe or number, it will roll the same way. Only matters how you hit it) Causality: Necessary & Sufficient Causes -A is necessary but not sufficient for event B : A required for event B to happen, but cannot cause B to happen , but cannot cause event B alone - Sufficient but not necessary : event B can have multiple triggers , and A is one of them -Necessary and sufficient: A required for event B and will cause event B *Many causes may contribute to an outcome , but be neither necessary or sufficient 1. Actor vs. Structure: 1. Actors: a person, group, or corporate body whose choices and behaviours have an influence on international politics. (choices) 2. Structure: the context or environment which limits, shapes, rewards, or punishes the choices and behaviour of actors. (deterministic) 3. Actor-centric vs. Structure-centric explanations: Actors make choices, structures shape choices. 4. Choices vs. Structural Determinism: Student can choose to study, University determines what choices you have (available courses) First Image: the individual. Human Nature: 1. Optimists: human nature is good; lack of understanding, propaganda, or cycle of violence that lead human nature astray. 2. Pessimists: there is something in the human psyche that makes it prone to aggression, power seeking, greed, and violence. 1. Aggression as shared by other primates 2. Human history and war: there has always been war. www.notesolution.com POL208 : Mid-Term Lecture Study Notes 3. Human Psychology: death instinct. 1. Social Identity Theory: 3. Waltz's critique: human nature is unchanging, war varies cant explain something thats changing w. something that always remains the same 1. Byman: people have different traits, some have more / less aggression 2. Pollack: diverse individuals, diverse behaviours Individual Humans (Leaders): 1. Individual Difference vs. Structure: 2. When do leaders matter?: when there are less constraints, when power is concentrated in their hands, when systemic / domestic / bureaucratic forces conflict or are ambiguous, when circumstances are fluid. 1. Crises: situations where it depends on what you do / don't do. 1. Cuban Missile Crisis (Kennedy vs. General Curtis LeMay): Blockade vs. Airstrikes and invading Cuba. Modeling Leadership Behaviour: first image continued. Personality: individuals patterns, how we act / think. 1. Psychobiography: look at individuals (dreams), pull out portrait of how they behave. 2. Personality Traits: neurotic, agreeableness, open-mindedness. 1. Motives: goals, desires, ambitions, psychological needs. 2. Cognition: beliefs, attitudes, convictions, complexity. 3. Temperament and disposition: extroversion, charisma, energy, emotional stability. 4. Generalizable Models: in a situation the leader will generally act like this. 1. Rational Choice: refers to procedural, not substantive rationality. Manner of selecting actions, not goals. 2. Bounded Rationality: limits in cognitive ability (7~2 pieces of information) 1. Satisficing: choosing the option that seems good enough as opposed to optimal. 2. Cognitive Shortcuts: 1. Social Identity Theory 2. Analogy: how it is similar to another situation. 3. Habit: doing what you always do. 4. Stereotypes: categorizing situations to use in new situations. 3. Incrementalism: make decisions one at a time as opposed to working back from an end point. 3. Cognitive and Social Psychology: 1. Prospect Theory (Cognitive Psychology): 1. Risk adverse for gains, risk acceptant for losses: risk is when there is not 100% certainty. Risk adverse when gains are involved. Risk acceptant when losses are involved. www.notesolution.com POL208 : Mid-Term Lecture Study Notes 2. Endowment Effect: people value what they have more than what they do not have. Expecting someone to pay for something that you yourself would not pay. 3. Low Probability, High Impact Events: 1 in 3,000,000,000 chance of terrorists making a nuclear weapon and smuggling it into the U.S. Yet people are most afraid of that. 2. Fundamental Attribution Error (Social Psychology): positive traits are part of my nature and negative behaviours are because of the situation. Positive traits due to someones situation and negative behaviours due to their nature. 4. Emotions and Decision Making: drive us to do something, after 9-11 fear and anger drove the U.S. to war with terrorism, specifically with Afghanistan and Iraq. Second Image: the state. State as Rational, Unitary Actor-centric: 1. Unitary Actor Assumption: has done something in the past and will do it again. 2. state as person: the state has beliefs constant over time. 3. Realism and the rational, unitary state: rationally involved to get the best out of a situation. What China wants is a reflection of leaders preferences, not what everyone in the country wants. 4. Rational, unitary states with other goals?: Institutions, Internal Politics, Domestic Interest Groups, Society. Importance of Domestic Political and Economic Structures: 1. Democratic peace theory: democracies do not go to war with other democracies. 1. Origins in Kant's Perpetual Peace: if citizens choose, they will choose not to go to war because it is costly and they die. 2. Possible Causes: 1. Values and shared identity: empirical law in international laws, democratic values. 2. Ability to understand intentions: transparency (speeches, decision-making, preferences) 3. Democratic leaders more picky about wars, but once committed will go all the way: 2. Economic Systems: states need international trade and credit. Lose trade and credit if they go to war. 1. Commercial Liberalism: leaders worry about trade relations, creates domestic interest groups that want peace, increases prosperity and satisfied public. 2. Capitalist Imperialism: need markets for excess production, capitalists fight each other over markets, capitalists learned how to trade and communicate. 3. Capitalism and conflict?: creates large military and military industry complex. 3. Government Decision Making Processes: not simple decision making, petty interests and complex bargaining. 1. Bureaucratic P
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