pol310 midterm.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Political Science
Justin Bumgardner

Conflict managementThird parties intervening in a conflictcivil war to try to manage it Reducing the level of conflict in a war or rivalryFewer conflictrelated fatalitiesFewer incidents of conflictA peace treaty if you have two groups fighting and use mediation to negotiate it may be a good sign of conflict management if they sign a treatyConflict management does not necessarily mean conflict resolution an end to all hostilities means the rebel groups are demilitarized resolution is better your ending it management is reducing the level of violenceOver 90 of conflict management takes place in civil warsCivil conflicts affect neighbouring statesRefugee problems displaced persons who have left their homes and have gone to another country They dont really have a choice UNHCR high commission on refugees cant do everything alone puts pressure on neighboring governments ex Syria Lebanon Turkey and Jordan Economic problemsMilitary entanglementsPolitical instability cause neighbor countries may inspire a rebellion to start in a neighboring country Libria 1989 and political instability in Sierre Liona thereWar spills across borders Why peace is so difficult to achieve in civil warsPeace is not the primary goal of the local combatants government and rebels fighting goal of third party may be peaceViolence occurred because both sides believed that killing and death was necessaryStakes are the permanent control of the government Syrian civil war why has it been going on for two years because each party wants control Assad they do not want to step down from power rebels dont want to accept any outcome besides Assad leavingCivil wars generally end with military victory for one side15 of postWW2 civil wars that featured military victories were followed by renewed wars50 of those that had negotiated settlements were renewed you get a peace treaty 50 it only gets you peace for a short time than the war comes backA negotiated settlement is never anyones best outcomeMass Atrocities Evans Ch 1 1What are mass atrocitiesFour nonmutually exclusive crimesGenocide War crimesCrimes against humanityEthnic cleansingIntervention is justified if any of them are occurringGenocide UN 1948 GenocideVery precise and narrow legal definition from 1948 Genocide Convention and 1998 Rome Statute Acts committed with intent to destroy in whole or in part a national ethnical racial or religious group as such an identity group a military campaign to destroy a certain group Rwanda Nazi GermanyWar crimesFully defined in the Rome StatureCommitted in armed conflict situations on a large scale during warspattern of it happening not an isolated incidents or rouge soldiers committing the crimesIncludes wilful killing mistreatment of POWs taking hostages attacking the UN or humanitarian groups using WMDs and using child soldiers Joseph KonyCrimes against humanityDefined in the Rome StatuteWidespread and systematic attacks on civilian populations could make this argue in EgyptIncludes murder extermination enslavement forced deportation imprisonment torture and rapeEthnic cleansingNo formal legal definitionOutright killing expulsion acts of terror designed to encourage flight to get people to leave Norm of noninterventionEstablished at the Peace of Westphalia in 1648Created the modern system of sovereign statesStates refrain from intervening in each others internal affairs you didnt want them to intervene in your country so you dont want to intervene in others Allowed for mass atrocities to be committed by governments domestically Nazi Holocaust which killed six million Jews led to a questioning of noninterventionUN Convention on Genocide declared that states must intervene to prevent genocide but not other mass atrocities 1948 UN came in 1945 Examples of mass atrocitiesTurkish killing of 15 million Armenians 191516 Automin empire genocide Stalin and USSR killed and starvation of 62 million through agricultural policies 191754 Bolshik revolution Chiang Kaishek and Chinese nationalists killing 10 million 192754Mao Zedong and Chinese communists killing and starving 4050 million 193476 Great Leap Forward Japanese rape of Nanking in 1937 and other atrocities killed millions in China and Asia in ww2 Pol Pot in Cambodia killed 17 million in the Killing Fields Cambodia RougeA lot of these were killed by their own governments
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