pol343 midterm.docx

20 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Mississauga
Political Science
Justin Bumgardner

thSeptember 27 Security Council UNSC What is it WhyWhat Created after ww2 can authorize military intervention peace keeping or sanctions 15 seats 5 of which are permanent members with veto powers US Russia China UK France 915 votes needed without any vetos Realist aspect of UN because of the veto power it weakens UN Why COLLECTIVE SECURITY system has two rules states may not start wars with other states violators of the first rule will be met with the combined force of all the other states in the system trying to deter a state from starting a war PROBLEMS multiple tasks for UN troops no actual standing army lack of funding collective security is difficult to enforce due to international relationsUSED twice Korean in 1950 Gulf War in 1991 vetoes derail action difficulty in defining aggression and agreeing on it inequalities in risk sharing uwillingness to fight when own security is not threated values others as much as they value themselvesReform distribution of seats reflects the power relationship in 1945 UK France no longer great powers Western states represent 60 of veto yet 15 of population Council should be enlarged UN membership has greatly expanded Size UKUSUSSR wanted small to deal with crises effectively P5 can veto any proposed amendment to charter elected members expanded from 6 to 10 in 1960s Brazil Germany India and Japan G4 wanted permanent seats reforms failed due to opposition Enlargement is not impossible just difficult reducing European share of seats with enhance legitimacy UKFrance give up their status have one seat instead of two share in two year intervals until it becomes an EU seat Europe would abstain more often not veto than the UK and France More multilateral decisions making allows more time to deliberate Improve chances of more reforms and make the UNSC more representative sets a constructive example EU can have a more coherent and consistent common foreign policy Evolution of Sanctions Geottemoeller sanctions use of trade or monetary measure to harm the economic state in order to change its policies With holding foreign aid placing tariffs and quotas on imports boycotting productsdeclaring embargo on the sale of goods to the target Withhold foreign aid Placing tariffs and quotas on importsBoycotting productsDeclaring an embargo on the sale of goods to the targetFreezing assets in international bankssanctions can be used in international security to change actions Sanctions a stick based approach trying to punish over a behaviour that you want to be changed Tariff is a tax on exported goods if a country is an exporter on a certain good that makes them less competitive harms the economy of the state Quotas limits the number of items a country can sell Boycott stop buying completelyBargo means were not going to sell freezing money in international banks not allowing accessAll different types of sanctionsCRITICS1 hurt average people not leaders Sanctions effectivenessmorality is questioned why are sanctions applied what are the alternatives Ex developing nuclear weaponsmilitary bombing strikes invading sanctions political example Canada shut down Iranian embassy in Ottawa over NW Military force on one spectrum diplomacy on the other side economic sanctions are in the middle Diplomacy is not risky but no teeth to it diplomacy less likely to work if the government Is violating international law Diplomacy is not going to work but theres no political will to use military force costs are not worth the benefit the option that is taken is the middle root Comprehensive hurt the citizens not leader if you take steps to hurt the economy of a country send them into a recession theory people get upset blame the government and put pressure on the government to change the policy how it happens in past suffers under sanctions the leaders quality of life doesnt get worseFlorida anticastro swing state need to get elected with Florida so US Presidents promise to put sanctionsComprehensive sanctions hurt average citizens not leadersIncrease nationalism goal of sanctions is to hurt economy and make public blame the leadership the international community gets blamed2003 when coalition came into Iraq lots of antiwestern due to long sanction
More Less

Related notes for POL343Y5

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.