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Study Guide

[PSY100Y5] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 46 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100Y5
Professor
Dax Urbszat
Study Guide
Final

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UTM
PSY100Y5
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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PSY100 Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception
o Synesthesia is a condition in which perceptual or cognitive activities (for example,
listening to music, reading) trigger exceptional experiences (for example, of colour,
taste).
o Synesthesia is a condition in which one sense is simultaneously perceived as if by one or
more additional senses such as sight.
o Eotioal sesthesia is a oditio i hih speifi stiuli ae osistetl ad
involuntarily associated with emotional resposes.
o In synesthesia, experiences from different senses becomes paired.
o Grapheme-colour synesthesia refers to a condition in which words, letters, or digits are
associated reliably with specific colours.
o Word-taste synesthesia refers to when words or names lead to taste sensation.
o Sound-colour synesthesia refers to when sounds/musical notes lead to colour sensation.
o Brains of people with synesthesia are different, perhaps reflecting hyper connectivity
between parts of the brain associated with different sensory experiences and that those
with synesthesia may experience some cognitive benefits derived from the experience.
o Sensation is the stimulation of sense organs.
Sensation involves the absorption of energy, such as light or sound waves by sensory
organs such as the ears and eyes.
o Perception is the selection, organization, and interpretation of sensory input.
Perception involves organizing and translating sensory input into something meaningful,
suh as ou est fied’s fae o othe environmental stimuli.
Psychophysics: Basic Concepts and Issues
o Psychophysics is the study of how physical stimuli are translated into psychological
experience.
- Thresholds: Looking for Limits
o Sensation begins with a stimulus, any detectable input from the environment.
o What counts as detectable depends on who or what is doing the detecting.
For example, what is the minimum amount of light needed for a person to see that
thee is light? Ipliit i Fehe’s uestio is oept etal to pshophsis: the
threshold.
o A threshold is a dividing point between energy levels that do and do not have a
detectable effect.
For example, hardware stores sell a gadget with a photocell that automatically turns a
lamp on when a room gets dark. The level of the light intensity at which the gadget
clicks on is its threshold.
o An absolute threshold for a specific type of sensory input is the minimum amount of
stimulation that an organism can detect.
Fechner discovered that a threshold absolute is anything but absolute.
As stiulus itesit ieases, sujet’s poailit of espodig to stiuli gaduall
increases. Researchers defined absolute threshold as the stimulus intensity detected
%50 of the time.
o A just noticeable difference (JND) is the smallest difference in the amount of
stimulation that a specific sense can detect.
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PSY100 Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception
JNDs is closely related to absolute threshold. An absolute threshold is simply the just
noticeable difference from nothing (no stimulus input).
o Wee’s la states that the size of a just otieale diffeee is a ostat popotio
of the size of the initial stimulus.
- Signal-Detection Theory
o Signal-detection theory holds that the detection of a stimulus depends on both the
intensity of the stimulus and the physical and psychological state of the individual.
- Your ability or likelihood to detect some stimulus is affected by the intensity of the
stimulus. For example, how loud a noise is.
- physical and psychological state, for example, how alert you are.
“igal detetio theo eplaes Fehe’s shap theshold ith the oept
detetailit.
Detectability is measured in terms of probability and depends on decision making
proves as well as sensory process.
- Perception without Awareness
o Subliminal perception is the registration of sensory input without conscious awareness.
I 1957, Jaes Via plaed hidde essages suh as Eat Popo i a fil shoig
at a theatre in New Jersey. The messages were superimposed only a few frames of the
film, so that they flashed by quickly and imperceptibly. Vicary claimed that popcorn sale
increased by %58.
- Sensory Adaptation
o Sensory adaptation is a gradual decline in sensitivity due to continuous stimulation.
Fo eaple, let’s sa that you find the garbage in your kitchen has started to smell. If
you stay in the kitchen without removing the garbage, the stench will soon start to
fade. In reality, the stimulus intensity if the odor is stable, but with your continuous
exposure, your sensitivity to it decreases.
o Sensory adaptation is an automatic, built-in process that keeps people tuned in to the
changes rather than the constants in their sensory input.
o As the name suggests, sensory adaptation probably is a behavioral adaptation that has
been sculpted by natural selection.
Our Sense of Sight: The Visual System
- The Stimulus: Light
o Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation that travels as a wave moving, naturally
enough, at the speed of light.
o Amplitude affects mainly the perception of brightness.
o Wavelength affects mail the perception of color.
Review of Key Points
- Psychophysicists use a variety of methods to relate sensory inputs to a subjective perception.
They have found that absolute thresholds are not really absolute.
- Wee’s la states that the size of a just otieale diffeee is a ostat popotio of the
size of the initial stimulus.
- According to signal-detection theory, the detection of sensory inputs is influenced by noise in
the system and by decision making strategies. Signal-detetio theo eplaes Fehe’s
sharp threshold with the concept of detectability and emphasizes that factors besides stimulus
intensity influence detectability.
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