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Study Guide

[PSY100Y5] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (23 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100Y5
Professor
Dax Urbszat
Study Guide
Final

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UTM
PSY100Y5
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Monday, October 17, 2016
SENSATION AND PERCEPTION
synesthesia: condition in which perceptual/cognitive activities trigger exceptional experiences
e.g. seeing “red” when you hear “train”
emotional: specific stimuli are consistently and involuntarily associated with
emotional responses
Grapheme-colour: words, letters, or digits are associated reliably with specific
colours
taste-touch: tastes lead to specific feelings
word-taste: words or names lead to taste sensations
sound-colour: sound/musical notes lead to colour sensations
synesthetes’ brains reflect hyper connectivity between parts of brain associated with
different sensory experiences
may experience cognitive benefits derived from experience
e.g. synesthesia + perfect pitch are associated genetically
sensation: stimulation of sense organs
perception: selection, organization, interpretation of sensory input
Psychophysics: Basic Concepts and Issues
psychophysics: study of how physical stimuli are translated into psychological
experience(Gustav Fechner)
Thresholds: Looking for Limits
Fechner wanted to know: from any given sense, what is the weakest detectable
stimulus?
threshold: dividing point between energy levels that do and do not have a detectable effect
absolute threshold: specific type of sensory input is the minimum amount of stimulation that an
organ can detect (detected 50% of the time)
Fechner interested in people’s sensitivity to difference between stimuli
Just Noticeable Difference(JND): smallest difference in amount of stimulation that a specific
sense can detect
Weber’s Law: size of a just noticeable difference is a constant proportion of the size of the
initial stimulus
Signal Detection Theory
detection of stimuli(detectability) measured by probability, involves decision making
processes + sensory processes influenced by variety of factors besides stimulus
sensitivity
responses depend on criterion you set for how sure you must feel before
reaction(involves higher mental processes)
replaces Fechners sharp threshold with concept of “detectability”
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Perception Without Awareness
subliminal perception: registration of sensory input without conscious awareness(money, sex,
religion, rock music)
e.g. sexual words/drawings embedded subliminally in magazines to elicit favourable
unconscious reactions from consumers
generally produces weak effects
can be detected by only precise measurement under carefully controlled lab conditions
Sensory Adaptation
gradual decline in sensitivity due to prolonged stimulation
autonomic process keeping people tuned in to changes rather than constants in sensory
input
behavioural adaptation sculpted by natural selection
Our Sense of Sight: The Visual System
people rely heavily on sense of sight=trustworthy
The Stimulus: Light
light=form of electromagnetic radiation travelling as wave, moving naturally enough, at
speed of light
light waves vary in amplitude(height)(perception of brightness) + wavelength(distance
between peaks)(perception of colour)
variety in purity influences perception of saturation of colours
vision=filter permitting people to sense a fraction of real world
visible spectrum only slim portion of total range of wavelength
incoming visual input must be converted into neural impulses sent to brain
The Eye: A Living Optical Instrument
1. channel light to neural tissue(retina)
2. house the retina
light enters cornea
crystalline lens form upside-down image of object on retina
"2
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