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Final

PsychologyNotes Exam


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100Y5
Professor
Dax Urbszat
Study Guide
Final

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Psychology Notes # 1
Psychologists study:
-Acrophobia (fear of heights)
-Zoophobia (fear of animals)
-fighting
-mating
-how hormones affect the brain.
“Psychology” comes from two Greek words
Psyche-soul logos- study
The study of the mind
-intellectual parents of psychology are the disciplines of philosophy and physiology.
-Wilhelm Wundt- German professor (1832) distinguished psychology as a independent discipline and not a
stepladder of philosophy and physiology.
-Thus Wilhelm Wundt is known as the founder of psychology.
-1879 first university in research of psychology in Leipzig. Hence historians have stated that 1879 is the year of
birth for psychology.
According to Wundt:
-Primary focus of psychology was consciousness- the awareness of immediate experience.
- Between 1883 and 1893 about 24 new psychological laboratories were discovered by Wilhelm’s
students.
- G Stanley Hall (1846-1924) studied with Wilhelm and important to the contribution of psychology in
USA.
- Hall established America’s first research laboratory in psychology at Johns Hopking University in 1883.
- Driving force behind American psychology association(APA)
- Worlds largest organization with over 155, 000 members
Battle of the “schools” begins: Structuralism versus Functionalism
- First two major schools of thought were structuralism and functionalism entangled in psychology’s first
great intellectual battle.
Structuralism- emerged through the leadership of Edward Titcher
- Englishman who earned his degree under Wilhelm wundt Leipzig laboratory.
Structuralism
- Based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and
investigate how these elements are related.
- How hearing is related to smelling/ How they connect with one another
Introspection- systematic self-observation of one’s own conscious experience.
Functionalism

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- based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather
than its structure.
William James
- had a career in medicine but joined a faculty in Harvard university to peruse a career in academia.
- Wrote a book principals of psychology (1890)
- Did not support structuralists
- Functionalists were more interested in how people adapt their behavior in the real world around them.
Mary Whiton Calkins (1863 1930)
- Studied under William James
- First woman to serve as president of the American psychological association in 1905.
Margaret Floy Washburn(1871-1939)
- First woman to receive a P.H.D in psychology.
- Wrote a book called The Animal Mind.
- Second president of the American Psychological Association in 1921.
Leta Stetter Hollingworth(1886-1939)
- Mental work on adolescent development, mental retardation, and gifted children.
- First person to use the term gifted to refer youngsters who scored high on intelligence tests.
John B. Watson
Stated: behaviorism is a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study
only observable behavior.
- Wanted scientists to study behavior they could observe directly rather than consciousness.
- Watson meant that scientific approach can always be disproved, and his method of studying behavior
would be the most objective.
Behavior- refers to any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism.
- believed that behavior is not determined by genetics and is rather made through the environment we live
around.
-Behaviorists eventually came to study and view psychology as studying it by relating behavior with observable
events environment.
Stimulus- any detectable input from the environment
- started to use animals in laboratories and studying their behaviors because the researches would have
more control over the subjects.
*Humans can request to go home at night, whereas animals can be kept in the laboratory as long as desired.
Unconscious mental processes
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) - Austrian physician
- wanted to treat mental disorder
- Treated people with psychological difficulties with a procedure referred to as psychoanalysis.
- Stated that psychological disturbances are caused by personal conflicts existing at a unconscious level.
- Psychoanalytic theory attempted to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on
unconscious determinants of behavior.
B.F Skinner

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- Supported John. B Watson on studying behaviorism of psychology
- Believed that internal mental events could not be studied scientifically and therefore there was no reason
to study them.
- Believed that environmental factors mold behavior but also acknowledged that the biological
endowment influences behavior.
- Organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes, and hey tend not to repeat responses
that lead to neutral or negative outcomes.
- All behavior is determined by external stimuli, and no actions are a result of conscious decisions.
The Humanists Revolt
- Psychoanalytic theory criticized for its belief that behavior is dominated by primitive sexual urges and
behaviorism was criticized for its preoccupation with the study of simple animal behavior.
- New school of thought called “humanism”
-Humanism is a theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their
freedom and their potential for personal growth.
Carl Rogers/ Abraham Maslow- human behavior is governed primarily by each individuals sense of life or self
concept (which animals lack).
Believed that to understand people’s behavior you must understand their personal growth.
-Greatest contribution of humanists to psychology has been their treatment of psychological problems and
disorders.
Psychology Comes of Age As a Profession
Applied Psychology- the branch of psychology concerned with everyday, practical problems.
Clinical psychology- branch of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological
problems and disorders.
- Clinical psychology enlightened when World War 2 started for soldiers to treat their psychological scars.
- Researchers complaining that not enough study of psychology is going to the scientific portion and
moreover to clinical psychology.
- New organization formed in 1988 called the American Psychological Society (APS) which was to study
the science of psychology.
Psychology Returns to its Roots
- Psychologists these days are showing more interest in consciousness now referred to as “cognition”) and the
physiological bases of behavior.
Cognition- refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge.
- cognitive theorists argue that psychology must study internal mental events to fully understand behavior.
- Electrical stimulation of the brain could evoke emotional responses such as pleasure and rage in animals
(James Olds 1956)
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