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Midterm

PSY100Y5 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Heritability, Egocentrism, Catecholamine


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100Y5
Professor
Dax Urbszat
Study Guide
Midterm

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Test #1 - Psych
L0101 MW 11-12 room 2072
1. What is the difference between a naturalistic study, a case study, and a survey? (5
marks)
- A naturalistic study observes phenomena in their natural environment with as little
interference as possible. A case study is the examination and observation of only one
subject. A survey is a group of questions distributed among a particular population,
designed to answer some specific questions. None of these methods of research allow us
to make causal inferences regarding relationships between variables.
2. In the experiment done in class, where you the students were the participants,
what were the independent and dependent variables? (4 marks)
- The independent variable was level of anxiety. The two conditions were 1. made to feel
anxious by speech threat (experimental condition) and 2. the control condition.
The dependent variable was the number of words generated on the word generation (or
“Boggle”) task.
3. What is the placebo effect? (3 marks)
- When someone shows improvement in their condition or symptoms simply because
they believe that they are receiving some kind of treatment, when in reality they are not
getting any real treatment at all.
4. Psychology is the combination of what 2 areas of study? (2 marks)
- philosophy and physiology
5. Give an example of a study, real or hypothetical, conducted in the area of Social
psychology. (3 marks)
- a researcher is looking at the effects of crowding on levels of aggression
6. A health care professional who treats serious mental disorders is likely a(n)
_______________ psychologist. (1 mark)
- clinical
7. What is a myelin sheath and what purpose does it serve? (3 marks)
- the myelin sheath is a coating of substance derived from glial cells that surround the
axon of certain neurons in order to increase the rate of speed of electrical pulses (or the
action potential) traveling down the axon.
8. What are the two main categories of cells in the nervous system? (2 marks)
- glia and neurons
9. What senses and which processes in the human mind and body are the frontal
lobes most responsible for? (3 marks)

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- the motor cortex is responsible for sensing movement, and the prefrontal cortex is
responsible for executive functions like planning, temporal sequencing and getting
organized.
10. What functions appear to be dominant in the left hemisphere? (3 marks)
language, speech, logic, and complex motor behavior
linguistic functions
11. What happens when there is damage to Broca’s area? (1 mark)
- you can no longer speak language
L0301 MW 3-4 K137
1. What is the difference between a naturalistic study, a case study, and an
experiment? (5 marks)
- A naturalistic study observes phenomena in their natural environment with as little
interference as possible. A case study is the examination and observation of only one
subject. An experiment is a controlled study that uses random assignment to control for
all variables, except the independent variable being manipulated by the researcher.
Random assignment allows for causal inferences to be made between the independent
and dependant variables.
2. Explain the results of the class experiment. What were the important
conclusions? (4 marks)
- The manipulation check showed that those in the experimental condition (who were
made to feel anxious by being threatened to have to give an improvised speech in front of
the class) were indeed significantly more anxious than the control group and that
participants in the experimental group produced less words on the word generation task
than those in the control group, as was predicted. Thus, the findings were that anxiety in
this context does decrease performance on a word generation task.
3. What is social desirability bias? (3 marks)
- This bias occurs when people filling out self-report questionnaires or participating in a
study are not completely honest with their responses, rather they answer questions in a
way that makes them look better, or in the way they think the experimenter would want
them to answer.
4. Who is considered the founder of Psychology and why? (2 marks)
- Wilhelm Wundt is considered the founder of psychology since he created the first
university program in the name of psychology and founded the first psychological
journal.
5. Give an example of a study, real or hypothetical, conducted in the area of
Abnormal psychology. (3 marks)
- a researcher is looking at the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on patients with
bulimia nervosa

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6. A university Professor who researches and teaches in the areas of social and
personality psychology is likely a(n) ________________ psychologist. (1 mark)
- experimental or academic
7. What is the synapse? (3 marks)
- the synaptic gap (or cleft) is the small space between the terminal buttons of the pre-
synaptic neuron and the dendrites of the post-synaptic neuron, where neurotransmitters
are released to either bind to the receptors, be cleaned away (inactivation or removal), or
undergo reuptake back into the terminal buttons.
8. Name the neurotransmitter, and one of its’ antagonists, that is most associated
with muscle movement and attention. (2 marks)
- acetylcholine and curare (or Novacaine)
9. What senses and which processes in the human mind and body are the parietal
lobes most responsible for? (3 marks)
- the parietal lobes contain the somatosensory cortex, receiving input from our sense of
touch, and are most responsible for functions like touch, spatial orientation, and non-
verbal thinking.
10. What functions seem to be controlled by the septal area and what
neurotransmitter is most associated with it? (3 marks)
- feelings of pleasure and relief from pain
- dopamine
11. If after being in an accident causing head trauma a person can no longer
understand spoken language, what area of the brain was likely damaged? (1 mark)
- Wernicke’s area
L0201 TR 1-2 K137
1. What is the difference between a correlation and an experiment? (5 marks)
- A correlation measures the strength and direction of associations between two variables.
A correlational study suffers from the problems of directionality and third variable
confounds which prevent researchers from making any causal inferences. An experiment
is a controlled study that uses random assignment to control for all variables, except the
independent variable being manipulated by the researcher. Random assignment allows
for causal inferences to be made between the independent and dependant variables.
2. In the experiment conducted in class where you the students were participants,
explain the manipulation check of this study. (4 marks)
- The manipulation involved making the experimental group anxious by threatening them
with having to give an improvised speech in front of the class. Both the experimental and
the control group filled out the Spielberger State Anxiety Scale and this scale was used to
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