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Final

PSY100Y5 Study Guide - Final Guide: Torsten Wiesel, Roger Wolcott Sperry, B. F. Skinner


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100Y5
Professor
Dax Urbszat
Study Guide
Final

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 10 pages of the document.
Psychology – Chapters 1-3
Chapter 1: The Evolution of Psychology
Psychology: science that studies behaviour and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie it,
and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems.
- Fundamental sciences of Psychology: philosophy & physiology.
- Wilhelm Wundt (1879): first psychological research lab at Leipzig, Germany
oDefined psychology as a “study of consciousness”
- G. Stanley Hall – helped Psychology grow in North America
oEstablished first research lab
oFounder of American Psychological Association
- Structuralism: based on theory that psychology is should be to analyze consciousness into its
basic elements and see how they are related.
oStructuralists: led by Edward Titchener
- Functionalism: based on theory that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of the
consciousness, rather than the structure.
oInspired by William James
oFunctionalism paved way for behaviourism and applied psychology
- Behaviourism: theory that psychology should only study observable behaviour.
oLed by John B. Watson
oBegan to redefine psychology as a science of behaviour
oImportance of nurture vs. nature (environment vs. heredity)
- Sigmund Freud
oUnconscious: contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of
conscious awareness but still has a huge influence on behaviour.
oPsychoanalytic Theory: attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorder
by focusing on the unconscious mind.
- B.F Skinner
o“free will is an illusion.”
- Humanists (1950`s)
oLed by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
oHumanism: theory that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, i.e: their freedon amd
potential for personal growth.
- First experimental laboratory in Canada was at the University of Toronto (1891) by James Mark
Baldwin.
Perspective & its
Influential Period
Principal Contributors Subject Matter Basic Premise
Behavioural
(1913 – Present)
John. B Watson
Ivan Pavlov
B.F Skinner
- effects of
environment on overt
behaviour of both
- Only observable
events (stimulus-
response relation) can

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humans & animals be studied scientifically
Psychoanalytic
(1900 – Present)
Sigmund Freud
Carl Jung
Alfred Adler
- Unconscious
determinants of
behaviour
- unconscious motives
and experiences in
early childhood
governs personality
and mental disorders.
Humanistic
(1950- Present)
Carl Rogers
Abraham Maslow
- Unique aspects of
human experience.
- humans are free,
rational beings with the
potential for personal
growth and they are
fundamentally different
from animals
Cognitive
(1950-Present)
Jean Piaget
Noam Chomsky
Herbert Simon
- Thoughts; mental
processes.
- human behaviour
cannot be fully
understood without
examining how people
acquire, store and
process information
Biological
(1950-Present)
James Olds
Roger Sperry
David Hubel
Torsten Wiesel
- Physiological basis of
behaviour in humans
and animals
- an organism`s
functioning can be
explained in terms of
bodily structures and
biochemical processes
that underlie behaviour
Evolutionary
(1980-Present)
David Buss
Martin Daly
Margo Wilson
Leda Cosmides
John Tooby
- Evolutionary basis of
behaviour in humans
and animals
- behaviour patterns
have evolved to solve
adaptive problems;
natural selection
favours behaviours the
enhance reproductive
success.
Key Research Methods in Psychology
Research Method Description Advantages Disadvantages
Naturalistic
Observation
Prolonged observation
of behaviour with no
direct intervention
Minimizes artificiality;
can be good to start
with, if little
knowledge about
phenomena is present.
Difficult to remain
unobtrusive; cant
explain certain
behaviour patterns
through observation
only
Surveys Questionaires/interviews
to gather info about
specific aspects about
behaviour
Gather data on
difficult to observe
situations; relatively
easy to collect from a
large sample
Self report(s) often
unreliable- intentional
deception, social
desirability bias,
response sets, memory
lapses & wishful
thinking
Case Studies In-depth investigation of
single participant using
direct interview, direct
observation and other
Suitable for study of
certain phenomena;
provides compelling
illustrations to support
Subjectivity makes it
easy to see what you
want to. Clinical
samples are often

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data collection a theory unrepresentative.
Experiment Manipulation of
independent variable in
controlled conditions, to
see changes in
dependant variable.
Precise control over
variable; draw
conclusions about a
cause-effect
relationship
Situations often
artificial;
ethical/practical
concerns
Theory Construction
→ →
Confound: A third variable
Ex: it is not due to self esteem that a person has a high GPA, but there is a confound (third variable) : a
high IQ causes higher self esteem and GPA.
Experimental Research
- Most powerful tool to determine causal relationships
- Random assignment: ensures every participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any
condition in the experiment.
oThrough random assignment you can make causal inferences.
Bias in Research
- Sampling Bias
- Placebo Effects
- Response Sets: conformity
- Experimenter bias: double blind procedure
Psychology Careers:
Specialty Focus of the Practice
Clinical Psychology -concerned with evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of individuals with
psychological disorders + treatment of less severe behavioural and
emotional problems. Activities include interviewing clients, psychological
Empirical
Research
(study to test
hypothesis)
Theory
(network of
explanatory
ideas)
Hypothesis
(predictions
derived
from
theory)
Findings support hypothesis;
confidence in theory increases
Findings don`t support
hypothesis; confidence decreases;
discard theory
OR: Revise & Refine Theory
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