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PSY100Y5 Study Guide - Final Guide: Torsten Wiesel, Roger Wolcott Sperry, B. F. Skinner

Course Code
Dax Urbszat
Study Guide

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Psychology – Chapters 1-3
Chapter 1: The Evolution of Psychology
Psychology: science that studies behaviour and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie it,
and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems.
- Fundamental sciences of Psychology: philosophy & physiology.
- Wilhelm Wundt (1879): first psychological research lab at Leipzig, Germany
oDefined psychology as a “study of consciousness”
- G. Stanley Hall – helped Psychology grow in North America
oEstablished first research lab
oFounder of American Psychological Association
- Structuralism: based on theory that psychology is should be to analyze consciousness into its
basic elements and see how they are related.
oStructuralists: led by Edward Titchener
- Functionalism: based on theory that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of the
consciousness, rather than the structure.
oInspired by William James
oFunctionalism paved way for behaviourism and applied psychology
- Behaviourism: theory that psychology should only study observable behaviour.
oLed by John B. Watson
oBegan to redefine psychology as a science of behaviour
oImportance of nurture vs. nature (environment vs. heredity)
- Sigmund Freud
oUnconscious: contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of
conscious awareness but still has a huge influence on behaviour.
oPsychoanalytic Theory: attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorder
by focusing on the unconscious mind.
- B.F Skinner
o“free will is an illusion.”
- Humanists (1950`s)
oLed by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
oHumanism: theory that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, i.e: their freedon amd
potential for personal growth.
- First experimental laboratory in Canada was at the University of Toronto (1891) by James Mark
Perspective & its
Influential Period
Principal Contributors Subject Matter Basic Premise
(1913 – Present)
John. B Watson
Ivan Pavlov
B.F Skinner
- effects of
environment on overt
behaviour of both
- Only observable
events (stimulus-
response relation) can

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humans & animals be studied scientifically
(1900 – Present)
Sigmund Freud
Carl Jung
Alfred Adler
- Unconscious
determinants of
- unconscious motives
and experiences in
early childhood
governs personality
and mental disorders.
(1950- Present)
Carl Rogers
Abraham Maslow
- Unique aspects of
human experience.
- humans are free,
rational beings with the
potential for personal
growth and they are
fundamentally different
from animals
Jean Piaget
Noam Chomsky
Herbert Simon
- Thoughts; mental
- human behaviour
cannot be fully
understood without
examining how people
acquire, store and
process information
James Olds
Roger Sperry
David Hubel
Torsten Wiesel
- Physiological basis of
behaviour in humans
and animals
- an organism`s
functioning can be
explained in terms of
bodily structures and
biochemical processes
that underlie behaviour
David Buss
Martin Daly
Margo Wilson
Leda Cosmides
John Tooby
- Evolutionary basis of
behaviour in humans
and animals
- behaviour patterns
have evolved to solve
adaptive problems;
natural selection
favours behaviours the
enhance reproductive
Key Research Methods in Psychology
Research Method Description Advantages Disadvantages
Prolonged observation
of behaviour with no
direct intervention
Minimizes artificiality;
can be good to start
with, if little
knowledge about
phenomena is present.
Difficult to remain
unobtrusive; cant
explain certain
behaviour patterns
through observation
Surveys Questionaires/interviews
to gather info about
specific aspects about
Gather data on
difficult to observe
situations; relatively
easy to collect from a
large sample
Self report(s) often
unreliable- intentional
deception, social
desirability bias,
response sets, memory
lapses & wishful
Case Studies In-depth investigation of
single participant using
direct interview, direct
observation and other
Suitable for study of
certain phenomena;
provides compelling
illustrations to support
Subjectivity makes it
easy to see what you
want to. Clinical
samples are often

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data collection a theory unrepresentative.
Experiment Manipulation of
independent variable in
controlled conditions, to
see changes in
dependant variable.
Precise control over
variable; draw
conclusions about a
Situations often
Theory Construction
→ →
Confound: A third variable
Ex: it is not due to self esteem that a person has a high GPA, but there is a confound (third variable) : a
high IQ causes higher self esteem and GPA.
Experimental Research
- Most powerful tool to determine causal relationships
- Random assignment: ensures every participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any
condition in the experiment.
oThrough random assignment you can make causal inferences.
Bias in Research
- Sampling Bias
- Placebo Effects
- Response Sets: conformity
- Experimenter bias: double blind procedure
Psychology Careers:
Specialty Focus of the Practice
Clinical Psychology -concerned with evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of individuals with
psychological disorders + treatment of less severe behavioural and
emotional problems. Activities include interviewing clients, psychological
(study to test
(network of
Findings support hypothesis;
confidence in theory increases
Findings don`t support
hypothesis; confidence decreases;
discard theory
OR: Revise & Refine Theory
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