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PSY100Y5 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Maria Montessori, Theory Of Multiple Intelligences, Intellectual Disability

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Dax Urbszat
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PSY100 Monday November 15, 2010
Just because people believe something, doesn’t mean it is true
o Everyone has different ideas about what intelligence is
IQ tests would suggest that memory from birth is what is to be measured Dax thinks otherwise
o It is a number that represents potential it doesn’t represent anything that you have
been done
You can have high IQ, but have done nothing
o Is there a difference smart of intelligent
Dax likes intelligence that focuses on problem solving (that has meaning and not everyday tasks)
o Problems such as career options, passions, meaning of life
Intelligence is defined and shaped by cultures
o If you can’t hunt or gather food, you are next to useless (even if you know quantum
o Western definition of intelligence is different than that in other countries
Psychometrics tests that measure cognitive level
o Sir Francis Galton thought that most people believed until a hundred years ago, that if
you are in the highest strata of society, that’s because you’re smarter and vice versa
o Galton decided to test this using correlational methods whether this belief was true
Tried to see whether how rich or poor you are coordinates with you intelligence
He found no correlation
o Evidence does not support that rich people are smarter and poor people are dumber
o Intelligence can be bent by the culture and educational system you are brought up in
(resource and technique is not everything however)
Dax sent kids to Montessori schools because he feels public schools aren’t teaching appropriate
o Montessori schools teach practical application skills, triple memory processes (see, hear,
read), communication skills, etiquette
o Maria Montessori proved that everyone was capable
o Intelligence seems to be randomly distributed throughout all ranges of people
Those who are born with higher intelligence will have advantages in all aspects
of life in achieving goals
Binet and Simon measured verbal fluency (spelling, verbal comprehension), mathematical
reasoning (like in math)
o Devised concept of mental age determined average ability of children and gave
children a mental age accordingly
o They wanted to compare children of different ages
o ***They took mental age and divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100 (to
create a score relative to 100)
This is the basis for IQ measurement
o If you mental age is 10 and your chronological age is 10, then your IA is 125
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PSY100 Monday November 15, 2010
o Distribution of IQ scores are like height and are normally distributed (think of the bell
o 62.8% of people have IQ scores of 85-115
o One standard deviation is a change from average to superior (up or down any one
o Down syndrome, PKU, autism responsible for profound mental retardation
IQ doesn’t predict anything on it’s own
o Originally designed to predict success in school
o .4-.5 correlation between IQ scores and school success (so it is only an average
Other factors are sleep, motivation, study techniques, effort
o IQ might make it easier to understand, memorize, learn new concepts, but those people
must still give a good effort
o Take Mozart for example (he was broke, terrible with people etc.) but he gained
“genius” status after his death
o Take the Einstein example (terrible father, husband, writer, bad hygiene, terrible sense
of style) is he a genius because he knew the special laws of relativity?
Many people seem to think so
IQ predicts about .3-.4 correlation of success in jobs
o If you have a low IQ, it is an excellent predictor of working success
o The IQ has less predictive power as the IQ increases
Critisized because it has no underlying construct
o Originally graded reading, writing and arithmetic narrow scope of ability
o There is no underlying theory for IQ test
Who say what we learn in school are the most important (like reading and
arithmetic)? Or why are they considered better than other mental processes
Dax feels that these are not the only indicators of intelligence and other
indicators are just as important
We have to take the IQ on faith (not common in science)
o There is a cultural bias scores depend on language, cultural experiences
Some immigrants may not understand some words or phrases (like cutting in
Immigrants from Italy, Germany and other European countries were test upon
immigrating and people thought they were stupid because they scored low
Approaches to Intelligence
o Psychometric approach statistical techniques used to define intellectual skills and
o Information-processing examining something more biological
Measures reaction time
These tests didn’t seem to do much better than IQ test
o Multiple intelligences Dax likes this
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