EXAM Review Key Terms for Chapters 1 - 16 as well as some main ideas for each chapter

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16 Oct 2011
Chapter 1 – The Evolution of Psychology
applied psychology: branch of psychology concerned with everyday,
practical problems. Contains of clinical, counseling, educational &
school, and industrial & organizational psychology
behaviour: any overt (observable) responses or activity by an
behaviourism: theoretical orientation based on the premise that
scientific psychology should study only observable behaviour
clinical psychology: branch of psychology concerned with the
diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders
critical thinking: the use of cognitive skills and strategies that
increase the probability of a desirable outcome
cognition: mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge
culture: refers to the widely shared customs, beliefs, values, norms,
institutions, and other products of a community that are transmitted
socially across generations
empiricism: argument that knowledge should be acquired through
ethnocentrism: tendency to view one’s own group as superior to
others and as the standard for judging the worth of foreign ways
evolutionary psychology: examines behavioural process in terms of
their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many
functionalism: based on belief that psychology should investigate the
function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure
humanism: theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique
qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for
personal growth
introspection: careful, systematic self-observation of one’s own
conscious experience
natural selection: heritable characteristics that provide a survival or
reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics
to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be
“selected” over time
positive psychology: uses theory and research to better understand
the positive, adaptive, creative, and fulfilling aspects of human
3 areas of interest:
positive subjective experiences: positive emotions (happiness, love,
positive individual traits: personal strengths and virtues
positive institutions and communities: how societies can foster civil
discourse, strong families, healthy work env, and supportive
neighbourhood communities
psychiatry: branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and
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treatment of psychological problems and disorders
psychoanalytic theory: attempts to explain personality, motivation,
and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of
psychology: science that studies behaviour and the physiological and
cognitive processes that underlie it, and it is the profession that applies
the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems
SQ3R: study system designed to promote effective reading, which
includes 5 steps: survey, question, read, recite, review
stimulus: any detectable input from the environment
structuralism: (Edward Titchner)based on the notion that the task of
psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and
investigate how these elements are related
testwiseness: ability to use the characteristics and format of a
cognitive test to maximize one’s score
theory: system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of
unconscious: contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well
below the surface of conscious awareness but nonetheless exert great
influence in behaviour
Sigmund Freud
- psychoanalysis: treating people troubled with psychological problems
(irrational fears, obsessions, and anxieties)
- work with patients and own self-exploration made him realize of the
existence of the unconscious
- psychological disturbances are largely caused by personal conflict
existing at the uncon level
- people aren’t masters of their own minds, behaviour is greatly
influenced by how people cope with their sexual urges
- studied motivation, personality, and abnormal behaviour
G. Stanley Hall
- studied with Wundt
- established America’s first lab in psych
- launched America’s first psych journal
- helped establish APA (American Psychological Association) and was
first president
Donald Hebb
- established importance between physiological and
neuropsychological perspectives & paved the way for recent cognitive
revolution in psychology
- emphasized the importance of the brain (locus of behaviour)
- repeated stimulation leads to the development of cell assemblies –
facilitates behavior
William James
- functionalism
- believed psychology is deeply embedded in a network of cultural and
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intellectual influences
- consciousness is an important characteristic of our species
- consciousness consist of a continuous flow of thoughts (stream of
Brenda Milner
- contributes to our understanding of memory
- one of the founders of neuropsychology in Canada
Carl Rogers
- humanistic movement
- human behaviour is governed mainly by each individual’s sense of
self – “self concept”
(animals lack)
- & Malsow, in order to fully understand human behaviour,
psychologists must take into account the fundamental human drive
toward growth
- humans have a basic need to continue to evolve as human beings
and to fulfill their potential
Martin Seligman
- discovered epiphany
- believed psych was excessively and needlessly negative in its
- positive psychology movement
- psych gave too much attention to pathology, weakness, damage, and
ways to heal suffering
- Lazarus argued that dividing psych into positive and negative is an
oversimplification and that the line between is unclear
B.F. Skinner
- behaviourism
- believes that internal, mental events are private events that
shouldn’t be given any special status
- enviournmental factors mould behaviour
- operant conditioning: organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to
positive outcomes and avoid those that lead to negative outcomes
- behaviour is fully governed by external stimuli
- free will is an illusion
John B. Watson
- founded behaviourism
- focus on behaviour that is directly observable
- mental events are private events
- behaviour is governed by env
- Ivan Pavlov classical conditioning
Wilhelm Wundt
- combines disciplines of philosophy & physiology
- 1879 psychology’s “date of birth”
- 1881 first journal devoted to publishing research on psych
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