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PSY100Y5- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 282 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100Y5
Professor
Dax Urbszat
Study Guide
Final

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UTM
PSY100Y5
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Urbszat 2017 Psychology
Lecture 1 Sept. 7, 2017
Defining Pscholog, Eploring different Pschological Fields
Definitions
o Psyche: soul
o Logos: to study
o Psychology: The scientific study of behaviour (of both animals and humans). Anything an
animal or human does, feels or thinks.
Thoughts
o Key Question that Psychologists are trying to answer: What is Consciousness?
o Using medicine for mental illness is not effective.
o We don’t know how were different than animals. We used to think it was because we were
self-aware, but it turns out animals are also self-aware.
o Humans are social animals.
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Urbszat 2017 Psychology
Lecture 2 Sept. 14, 2017
Research Methods, Experietal Research, Bias
CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH
Generates
Hypothesis
Controls for
extraneous variables
Can be applied to real
world outside lab
PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH METHODS
Naturalistic Observational Studies (Cannot infer Causality)
Observing behaviour in a natural & uninterrupted environment. Cons are that it gives little
control to researchers. Pros are that it is in a less artificial setting (such as a lab).
Surveys (Cannot infer Causality)
Asking people to self-report data. However, the effectiveness of a survey is only as high as the
strength of the question. Cons are that is it most susceptible to social desirability bias, etc. Pros
are that it is cheap, easy & can generate a lot of data.
Case Studies (Cannot infer Causality)
Analyzing and observing an individual entity, like a person or firm. A famous example of this is
Patient H.M., whose left & right brain hemispheres were disconnected. Cons include a lack of
ability to apply to a broad population. Pros are that it’s useful for clinical settings and diagnosis.
Correlational Studies (Cannot infer Causality)
Finding & measuring a relationship between two or more variables. Con; it has a directionality
problem (does X cause Y, or vice versa?). It also has a confounding variable problem (does Z
cause both X & Y?). Pros; easier to study questions where ethics is an issue.
Strength of correlations (-1 < r < 1):
Perfect correlation: 1.0
Strong correlation: 0.6 to 0.8 Most human behaviour correlations fall within this range!
Moderately Strong correlation: 0.3 to 0.5
No correlation: 0
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