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PSY100Y5 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Recognition Memory, Free Recall, Forgetting Curve

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Dax Urbszat
Study Guide

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Lab Test #2
Lab #6
Free Recall and Recognition Memory Experiments
-sensory memory: allows individuals to retain impressions of sensory information after the
original stimulus has ceased, is stored just long enough to be transferred into STM
-short term memory: the capacity for holding, but not manipulating, a small amount of
information in mind in an active, readily available state for a short period of time
-long term memory: the phase or type of memory responsible for the storage of information for
an extended period of time
-signal detection analysis (hits and false alarms and response bias and decision making): a
means to quantify the ability to discern between information-bearing patterns (called stimulus
in living organisms) and random patterns that distract from the information
-encoding: the initial learning of information
-storage: maintaining information over time
-retrieval: the ability to access information when you need it
-mnemonics: the study and development of systems for improving and assisting the memory
-serial position effects (LTM): the tendency of a person to recall the first and last items in a
series best, and the middle items worst
-primacy effect (LTM): among earlier list items, the first few items are recalled more frequently
than the middle items
-recency (STM): when asked to recall a list of items in any order (free recall), people tend to
begin recall with the end of the list, recalling those items best
-recall percentage: measures the proportion of positives that are correctly identified
-recognition (hits and false alarms): identification from previous encounters or knowledge
Standard Deviation
-a quantity calculated to indicate the extent of deviation for a group as a whole
-scores around the mean of a distribution as it measures how much a set of scores is
dispersed around an average measure of variability
-deviations around the mean can be calculated to express it as a variance or a standard
Ebbinghaus Relearning
-a German psychologist who pioneered the experimental study of memory, and is known for
his discovery of the forgetting curve and the spacing effect
-he was also the first person to describe the learning curve
-he memorized over 2,000 nonsense syllables in the course of his work. He called each
presentation of nonsense syllables a trial.
-he gave himself repeated trials until he learned the material to a criterion level of
Lab #7
Positive Psychology and Meditation
-positive psychology: the scientific study of human flourishing, and an applied approach to
optimal functioning. It has also been defined as the study of the strengths and virtues that
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Lab Test #2
enable individuals, communities and organizations to thrive, Seligman started a new
discipline called Positive Psychology in 1998
-health psychology: the study of psychological and behavioural processes in health, illness,
and healthcare. It is concerned with understanding how psychological, behavioural, and
cultural factors contribute to physical health and illness
-The Pleasant Life: Positive Emotion and the skills to amplify it
-The Good Life: Flow & Engagement, Confidence and Satisfaction
-Meaningful Life: Meaning & Purpose, using your strengths in the service of something greater
than yourself contributing to something bigger – often through contact with other people.
Mind/Body Revolution in Medicine
-awareness isn't confined to the brain; it operates ‘non-locally,' beyond the biochemical lines
between brain and the immune system
8 Steps to Happiness and Life Satisfaction
-count your blessings
-practice acts of kindness
-saver life’s joys
-thank a mentor
-learn to forgive
-invest time and energy in friends and family
-take care of your body
-develop strategies for coping with stress and hardships
Satisfaction with Life Scale (5 question measure of happiness)
-Diener et al (1985) gave 175 undergrads 48 self-report questions about life satisfaction and
argued that the majority of the variability could be explained by scores on 5 key questions.
-Follow-up studies showed the task to be reliable (score average for undergrads was 23.5, but
for older subjects it was higher 25.8 out of a maximum of 35). The SWL scale correlated .5
to .68 with other measures of life satisfaction. Some consider this to be a reasonable
measure of “Happiness”.
Social Readjustment Scale
-measure of stressors in the last 6 months
-Holmes and Rahe asked 5000 clients to list life events they deem most stressful (both
positive and negative events require some ‘adaptive struggle” or social readjustment).
-They narrowed down the list to 43 and gave these to 394 new people to rate the relative
degree of disruption caused by the event, using marriage as the standard with a value of 500.
-After calculating the average they rescaled the scores so that the maximum stressor event
would be 100. Your total is measure of “Stress”.
Benson’s Relaxation Response
-Herbert Benson, a professor at Harvard’s Medical School, discovered the ‘relaxation
response’, a mechanism of the body countering the well-known ‘fight-or-flight’ response.
-He found that this mechanism could be triggered through meditation. Benson found that the
relaxation response reduces the body’s metabolism, heart and breathing rate, blood pressure,
muscle tension, and calms brain activity, increases the immune response, helps attention and
decision making, and changes gene activities that are the opposite of those associated
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