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Midterm

PSY100Y5 Midterm: Test 4 Review (Prof. Will)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100Y5
Professor
Dax Urbszat
Study Guide
Midterm

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Motivation is the desire to do something
Motives are what propel people in certain directions
Theories
Drive Theories (homeostasis)
Negative state of tension that motivates us to engage in activities that reduce this tension
Incentive Theories (external stimuli)
Desire of reinforcement that motivates behaviour
Evolutionary Theories (maximize of reproduction)
Aggression, sex drives, need to belong
Hunger Motivation
Biological (internal) neural circuits passing through hypothalamus to regulate hunger
Environmental (external) presence of others, stress
Sexual Motivation (Biological & Psychological)
Sexual desire (libido) influenced by genes, biology, social, and cultural factors
o Neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine (neg) & dopamine (pos)
Human Sexual Response Cycle
1. Excitement Phase
2. Plateau Phase
3. Orgasm (Climax) Phase
4. Resolution Phase
Sexual orientation is the direction of attraction for a sexual partner
Choice Theories (environmental) behaviour is chosen, driven to satisfy 5 basic needs
o survival, love & belonging, power, freedom, fun
Biological Theories
Social Motivation
Achievement Motivation (internal)
Overcome difficult challenges
Outperform
Achievement Motivation & the Situation
Need for achievement (stable)
Probability of success (varies)
Incentive value (varies)
Affiliation Motivation (external)
Need to belong associate with others and maintain acceptance
Ostracism being ignored and excluded
Emotion reflect a stirred-up state (+ve or -ve)
Cognitive Element (conscious)
Cognitive events influence the emotions people experience
Physiological Element
Amygdala plays central role
Behavioural Element
Expressed through body language

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Discrete Emotions Theory biological roots and serve evolutionary functions
(7) primary emotions happiness, disgust, fear, sadness, surprise, anger, contempt “pride”
Combine to form secondary emotions
James-Lange Theory physiological changes in the body affects emotions
Our emotions come after the behavioural response to events
o Facial-feedback hypothesis if we change our behaviour, we change our feelings
Cannon-Bard Theory physiological and emotional changes occur simultaneously in response to a
stimulus (opposed to the James-Lange Theory)
o STIMULUS EMOTION REACTION/RESPONSE
Schachter-Singer Two Factor Theory emotion comes from a combination of a state of arousal and a
cognition that makes best sense of the situation the person is in
Human Development
Most dramatic changes occur during early prenatal development
Prenatal Development
Zygote divides to form a blastocyst during the germinal stage
2nd week; cell assumes different functions and blastocyst becomes an embryo
Embryonic stage lasts 8 weeks
9th week is the fetal stage, establish major organs and heart beats
Fetus continues physical maturation and bulking up until birth
Brain Development 18 days to 6 months for neurons to grow
Obstacles
Teratogens are environmental factors and can have negative impact (e.g. drugs, smoking)
Alcohol consumption, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FAS)
Genetic disruptions caused by disorders or random errors in cell division
Prematurity born prior to 36 weeks
o less time in utero, greater chance of serious complications
Motor Development
infants are born with large sets of automatic motor behaviours (reflexes)
achieve motor milestones
influenced by physical maturity and cultural & parenting practices
always achieved in same developmental sequence
Temperament early appearing and largely genetic
easy (40%)
difficult (10%)
slow to warm up (15%)
Attachment close emotional bonds of affection (not instantaneous, develop over 6-8 months)
Behaviourists assumed children bonded to those that provided them nourishment
reassuring physical contact
Attachment Styles
Secure Attachment (60%)
Anxious-Ambivalent Attachment (15-20%)
Avoidant Attachment (15-20%)
Disorganized-Disorientated Attachment (5-10%)
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