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PSY100Y5 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Edward B. Titchener, Paul Broca, Psychological Testing

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Dax Urbszat
Study Guide

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Psychology Chapter 1 Test Review
Chapter 1
- Psychology: is the science that studies behaviour and the physiological and cognitive
processes that underlie it, and it is the profession that applies the accumulated
knowledge of this science to practical problems
o Comes from a Greek words; psyche (soul) and logos (study of subject)
o Emerged 140 years ago in the 16th century as a scientific discipline
- Scholars often point to developments in philosophy and psychology as influencing the
course of psychology.
- Plato, Socrates and Aristotle considered and debated issues of relevance to psychology
o Subjects such as separation of mind and body
o Whether knowledge is inborn (nativism) or gained through experience
- Robert Whyte, Franz Gall, Paul Broca and Johannes Muller were phycologists and
physicians which showed that important insights could be gained onto the working of
the body and brain through the application of systematic, empirical methods.
- Many refer the emergence of psychology as a distinct discipline to the work of Wilhelm
o States that: physiology informs us about life phenomena by our external senses.
But in psychology, person looks upon himself from within and tries to explain
themselves in which their internal observation discloses.
o Wundt broke apart the relationship amongst philosophy and made psychology
on its own by proving it with research.
o According to Wundt, the subject matter of new science was consciousness- the
awareness of immediate experience. Thus psychology became the study of
- Structuralism: based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze
consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related.
o Influenced by Edward Titchener
o Wanted to identify the fundamental components of consciousness experience,
such as sensations, feelings and images.
o Practiced introspection: required training to make the subject- the person being
studied- more objective and more aware.
o Gravitated to the labs

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- Functionalism: based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or
purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure.
o Influenced by William James
o Argued that the structuralists’ approach missed the real nature of conscious
experience. Consciousness consists of a continuous flow of thoughts. In analyzing
consciousness into its “elements,” the structuralists were looking at static points
in that flow.
o James wanted to understand the flow itself, which he called the stream of
o Interested in how people adapt their behaviour to the demands of the real world
around them.
o Focused on mental testing, patterns of development, effectiveness in school,
behavioural between male vs female.
- John B. Watson proposed that psychologists should mainly focus on behaviours that
they can observe directly.
o Formed Behaviourism: theoretical orientation based on the premise that
scientific psychology should study only observable behaviour.
o Scientific method rested on idea of verifiability.
o Behaviour: refers to any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism.
o psychologists could study anything that people do or sayshopping, playing
chess, eating, complimenting a friendbut they could not study scientifically the
thoughts, wishes, and feelings that might accompany these observable

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- Sigmund Freud; Austrian physician
o Believed psychology grew out of mental disorders
o Formed the term “unconscious”: contains thoughts, memories and desires that
are well below the surface of conscious awareness but nonetheless exert great
influence on behaviour.
o Psychoanalytic theory: attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental
disorders by focusing on unconscious determinates of behaviour
o Believed that people are no the masters of their own minds.
- B. F. Skinner
o Insisted that internal mental events cannot be studied.
o He also emphasised how environmental factors mould behaviour
o He believed that all behaviour is fully governed by external stimuli; in other
words, your behaviour is determined in predictable ways by lawful principles
o According to Skinner, we are all controlled by our environment, not by ourselves.
In short, Skinner arrived at the conclusion that free will is an illusion
- Humanism: is a theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans,
especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth.
o Optimistic view
o Influenced by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow.
o Rogers argued that human behaviour is governed primarily by each individual’s
sense of self, or “self-concept”
o Humanism has been used to innovative treatments for psychological problems
and disorders
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