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Final

Study Notes.doc


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100Y5
Professor
Dax Urbszat
Study Guide
Final

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PSY STUDY NOTES TEST 3
CHAPTER 7 MEMORY
HOW DOES INFORMATION GET INTO MEMORY?
3 Steps:
Encoding: reification
- Involves forming a memory code, emphasizing how it looks, sounds, what it means
and requires attention.
- Analogy: Entering data through keyboard.
Storage:
- Involves maintaining info in memory over time.
- Analogy: Saving data in file or on hard disk.
Retrieval:
- Involves recovering info from memory stores.
- Analogy: Calling up files and displaying data on monitor.
ENCODING:
THE ROLE OF ATTENTION:
- Need to pay attention to the things you want to remember
- Attention: Focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events
- Attention is linked to a filter that screens out the most potential stimuli while
allowing a select few to pass through
- It is unknown where this filter is located and if it filters out stimuli early, during
sensory input or late after the brain has processed the meaning and the
significance of it. Cocktail party phenomenon says that attention involves late
selection, based on meaning of the input but both positions have ample amount of
evidence supporting them. This led sci to think that the location of the attention
filter is fixable not fixed.
- Dividing attention = decreased memory
LEVELS OF PROCESSING:
- Level of processing theory: Deeper levels of processing result in longer-lasting
memory codes.
- Three different levels of encoding:
1. Structural encoding: Emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus (shallow
processing, ex. Determining if the word is capitalized)
2. Phonemic encoding: Emphasizes what a word sounds like (Intermediate
processing)
3. Semantic encoding: Emphasizes the meaning of verbal input (Deep processing,
thinking abt meaning, objects and action the word represents).

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- Flaws: How do we determine whether one level is deeper than the others? By time
required for processing? Cant because structural encoding sometimes may take
longer than semantic encoding.
ENRICHING ENCODING:
ELABORATION:
- Linking the stimulus to other information at the time of encoding.
VISUAL IMAGERY:
- Creating visual images to represent the word to be remembered.
- Abstract concepts such as “truth” are harder to visualize than concrete concepts
such as “juggler”
- Dual-coding Theory (Paivo): Memory is enhanced by forming semantic and
visual codes, since either of them can lead to recall (ie, forming two codes, visual
and semantic is better than one, semantic alone)
SELF-REFERENT ENCODING:
- Making material personally meaningful, deciding how or whether the info is
personally relevant.
- Enhances recall by promoting additional elaborating
STORAGE
SENSORY MEMORY:
- Preserves info in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction
of a second.
- It allows the sensation of visual pattern, sound or touch to linger for a brief
moment after the sensory stimulation is over and incase of vision, ppl usually see
an afterimage instead of the actual stimuli.
- Does not last long.
- The memory trace in the visual sensory store decays in about ¼ of a second.
- Memory traces in the auditory system also lasts less than a second.
SHORT TERM MEMORY (STM):
- A limited capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed info for up to abt 20 sec.
- Rehearsal: The process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking abt the info.
Durability of storage:
- Short-term memory can be lost due to time-related decay of memory traces and
also because of interference.
Capacity of Storage:
- Short-term memory can hold a limited number of items.
- Pointed out by George Miller: ‘the magical number seven, plus or minus two’
- Found that ppl can recall only abt 7 items in a task that required them to learn
unfamiliar material
- Capacity can increase if u combine the stimuli into larger, higher order chunks
- Chunks: A group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit

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- When ppl try to understand or evaluate info they are working with in their short-
term memory, they draw info out of their long-term memory banks, i.e., long-term
short term.
STM AS WORKING MEMORY:
- Proposed by Alan Baddeley
- STM not just limited to phonemic encodings and decay is not only responsible for
loss of info.
- 4 characteristics of a working memory:
1. Phonological Rehearsal Loop: ex. When using recitation to temporarily hold on to
phone numbers
2. Visuospatial Sketchpad: Allows ppl to temporarily hold and manipulate visual
images. ex. When mentally rearranging the furniture in ur room.
3. Executive Control System: Controls deployment of attention, switching focus of
attention and dividing attention as needed.
4. Episodic Buffer: a temporary, limited-capacity store that allows the various
components of working memory to integrate info that serves as an interface btwn
working memory and long-term memory.
LONG TERM MEMORY (LTM):
- Has an unlimited capacity store, which can hold info for a long period of time.
- Info in LTM can potentially be stored permanently
- Ppl forget info because they are sometimes unable to retrieve it from their LTM
- First Line of Research: Penfield triggered long lost memories through electrical
stimulation of the brain (ESB). (Ex. Memories from childhood: “watching mom
make a phonecall.”)
These triggered memories include high distortions or factual
impossibilities.
Are often hallucinations, dreams or loose recollection of event.
- Second Line Research: Flashbulb Memories: vivid and detailed recollections of
momentous events. (Ex. Remembering what u were doing during the attack of
9/11)
Not accurate
Over time become less detailed like other memories.
ARE STM AND LTM REALLY SEPARATE?
- STM is a tiny, constantly changing portion of long-term memory.
- Another view is that there is a generic memory stored governs by one set of rules
and processes.
HOW IS KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTED AND ORGANIZED IN MEMORY
CLUSTERING AND CONCEPTUAL HIERARCHIES:
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