PSY100Y5 Final: Final Exam Study Guide [Helped Me Ace Psych!]
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PSY100: Introduction to Psychology- Lecture 1- Introduction
What is Psychology?
• “the scientific study of behaviour”
• Scientific Method
• What makes humans different from other species?
• Why haven’t other animals evolved?
Psychology, Philosophy and Physiology
• Psychology - Scientific method, What is consciousness?
• Philosophy - Opinions, What is the purpose of life? Why are we here….
• Physiology - anatomy, animal behaviour- Uses the Empirical Method
What are the Major Perspectives?
• Biological - neuroscience, irregular brain development
• Psychoanalytic - Freud, ruled for decades, first one to examine unconscious mind- our
desires, motives, sex is a drive. He was unaccredited. Ego defense mechanisms- denial,
etc., Grandfather of psychotherapy- we can talk abot things to cure mental illness (more
effective than pills for disorders- mental and physical)
• Behavioral - 60-70s, relied on animal models. Problem: ignored that humans are indeed
different and special
• Humanistic - psychotherapy, recognizes that humans are special. Only species
habituating all over the world. We have special meaning and purpose. Meaning of life is
to find the purpose- live a genuine life, not materialistic.
• Cognitive - Cognition- how we think. Perception- . Every time we remember something,
we make most of it up and we cannot even tell. Memory is biased at perception,
retrieval, presentation etc.
• Evolutionary - Dreaming “must” dream- must be evolutionary- important to our survival
and procreation. Have same behaviour because it served us. Evolution of thinking
processes and behaviour. Reflexes are pre-programmed (afraid of heights because our
ancestors passed these genes down) (carbs because they only came around once a
year in the past). Adaptive functions
What are the Major Areas of Research?
• Social - groups, why we obey, conform, hierarchies. Why war, religion. Why people are
• Physiological - human neuroscience, brain. Medications
• Cognition/Perception - language- we are born to have it (that’s what separates us from
other animals), memory. Perception- 5 senses and how you see (occipital lobe, not
eyes), energy from environment.
• Personality/ Abnormal - study of who we are, how, why we became this way. Genetic
differences. Personality is shaped by experience. Personality disorders. Largely fixed
but can alter personality by altering behaviour. Abnormal- clinical psychology.
Experimental= research; Clinical- treatment of diagnosed mental illness- hospitals, talk
therapy etc; Counseling- no diagnosis (test anxiety, addiction); Psychiatry- medication
• Developmental - physical changes, social, personality, moral, emotional, motor, physical
(puberty) and, cognitive development
• Psychometrics - statistics, creation of assessment tools (guides) to test people. Used to
validate the tools.
• Health - illness and stress correlate. Coping mechanisms- meditation. Dualism is a
mistake- mind and body cannot be separated. Status Quo- until we prove it wrong, and
even if, it may not go away. Ex Germ theory (took 60 years before doctors would wash
• Forensics - psychology and law. Work in government, law firms. Examine the legal
How to Improve Academic Performance
• Active Reading (SQ3R)
oRead aloud, ask question, answer question, study from them
• Go to Every Class
oGood habits, self-discipline, improves: attention, note-taking, listening
• Do Your Readings Before Class
oPay more attention because the mind recognizes the content
• Bring Slides to the Lecture
• Time Management
oMake lists, plan your calendar, reward success
• Big Picture Perspective
• Study Groups
oIncreases interaction, interest
PSY100: Introduction to Psychology- Lecture 2- Research Methods
Characteristics of Good Psychological Research
• Theoretical Framework -
oTheory, perspective, hypothesis, Theoretical Perspectives, (crises in life affect
future) (anxiety hinders performance- want to see where it boosts performance.
Now have to change- anxiety AFFECTS performance).
oA theory is never finished- it is always changing. Science= continuing to test our
beliefs… to either prove what we believe, or change them.
oTheory of Evolution- no theory can compete with it, but it doesn’t explain
oCreationism is a belief, not a theory.
oTheory- can be proven, feuded. Belief- cannot be proven.
• Standardized procedure -
oThe same every time, we don’t want to rely on one study alone- skeptical, it may
be a fluke. We want someone else to run it, with different subjects. We want to
• Generalizability -
oSample “hopefully” represents the pop.
oEx. University students. But we don’t represent the rest of the world- we are
much more educated than most of the world. Vs. Jurors- voters, older, less
educated. He looked if it’s biased- Racial bias. Is it bias because they’re a part of
a visible minority group? University students have less of a chance of have
prejudicial beliefs (less traditional beliefs).
oResearch has effects on real world too (gruesome autopsies in juries).
oMake sure sample represents the people you’re interested in.
oEcological/external validity is very important. Want it to be as close to reality as
possible. (ex. Reading a law case vs. actually being there)
• Objective Measurement -
oModern Racism scale- reliable but it’s affected by who gives it out. If given by one
scale by itself, people are less biased. If anonymous, then higher levels of bias
(not really true because with anonymous, more likely to be honest and non
biased). It is unconscious that we change responses biasedly.
oPolygraph- Lie Detector Test. It measures stress and anxiety (heart rate, blood
pressure, etc.). It is an invalid measure, not reliable.
oWe are born liars- not at all honest/truthful- we assume that we know, but we’re
oStandardized test for Depression- compare to other people’s tests and then use
the average. Doctors do it all the time- biased because of their day etc.
•Doesn’t affect/influence the environment
•(Ex. When observing, don’t get involved with children) (ex. One on one
vs. Group confessions), just to see what happens, not why or how it
•May not be representative of the entire population.
•Most vulnerable to bias, manipulation (get the answers that you want)
•Be skeptical (ex. Nestle controlling Peanut survey).
•How you ask the question- (ex. Smashed vs. hit)
•Case Study -
•Is not enough info. Don’t have enough subjects- study of Prime Ministers- can’t
get all of them.
•Cancer- cow urine cured less than 1% of cancer patients- less than 1% of
people get better in a hospital bed too. 15 years later- some form of
curing in goat urine. This is why we do research- can never be sure. Keep
studying it, extract, reformulate, etc.
•Can’t prove causations, can only assume.
•need to prove, can prove causation
• Perfect correlation - when you take out oxygen, we will all die
• Strong correlation - when one thing happens, one thing usually happens
• Moderately strong - human behaviour is varied. By many factors affecting us in many
• The Correlation Coefficient -
oPositive correlation- one goes up, other goes up= 1.75
oNegative correlation – one goes up, one goes down= -0.5
oNo correlation - random
• Correlational Research:
oHeight and weight
Ex. Ice cream sales and violence are positively correlated- cannot infer
this causation because: heat makes people/all animals more violent, ice
cream sales increase when it’s hot
oDirectionality - does B cause A or vice versa