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dealing with psychological disorders


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100Y5
Professor
Dax Urbszat

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Chapter 15 Study Notes
The Elements of the Treatment Process
Joseph Beruer around 1880 started to treat a young woman by the name of Anna O
Her symptoms of headaches, coughing and loss of feeling in and movement in her
right arm started to clear up when he convinced her to talk about them
Freud called this treatment psychoanalysis
Who Seeks Therapy?
-There is a great variety among the type of clients
-A full range of problems including: anxiety, depression, unsatisfactory interpersonal
relations, troublesome habits, poor self-control, low self-esteem, marital conflicts
and/or self doubt
-There is an intense delay in seeking treatment: 6 years for bipolar disease,8 years
for depression, 9 years for generalized anxiety and 10 years for panic disorder
-Psychologist Norman Edner was encouraged not to seek psychological treatment in
his hometown because people will find out
Psychologists
Counseling psychologists training is slanted towards the problems of everyday life
Need a PhD to practice clinical psychology
More likely to use behavioral techniques and less likely to use psychoanalytical
techniques
Treatment by psychologists is not part of the government medical insurance funding
system
Psychiatrists
-Physicians who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders
-Devote more time to much more severe disorders (schizophrenia, mood disorders)
-Have an M.D degree with graduate training in medical school and a four-year
residency and apprenticeship at a hospital
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-Are more likely to use psychoanalysis
Other Mental Health Professions
Clinical social workers and psychiatric nurses often work as a part of a treatment
team with a psychologist or psychiatrist
Many kinds of counselors also provide therapeutic services
Counselors typically have a masters degree in vocational counseling, rehabilitation,
and drug counseling
Psychoanalysis
-Insight therapy that emphasizes the recovery of unconscious conflicts, motives and
defenses through techniques such as free association and transference
-Freud believed that the unconscious was the root to al mental disorders
-Freud mostly treated anxiety-dominated disturbances, phobic, panic, obsessive
compulsive, and conversion disorders which were then called neurosis
-He believed that people depend on defense mechanisms to avoid confronting conflicts
Probing the Unconscious
Free Association: Clients spontaneously express their thoughts and feelings exactly as they
occur with as little censorship as possible
-Regardless of how silly, embarrassing it might be
Dream Analysis: The therapist interprets the symbolic meaning of the clients dreams
-Access the patients innermost conflicts, wishes and desires
-The therapist then analyzes the meaning and symbolism of the dreams
Interpretation
Refers to the therapists attempts to explain the inner significance of the clients
thoughts, feelings, memories and behaviors
Analysis move forward inch by inch offering interpretation that should just out of
the clients own reach
Resistance
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Unconscious defense maneuvers intended to hinder the progress of therapy
Clients necissarly do not want to face up to the painful, disturbing conflicts that they
have buried in their unconscious
Clients may show up late for sessions or show hostility towards their therapist
Transference
Clients unconsciously start relating to their therapist in ways that mimic critical
relationships in their lives
Might start relating to the their therapist as an overprotecting mother
It is often encouraged so that clients can re-enact relationships with crucial people
in context of therapy
Complicated because it may arouse emotions in the client
Clients recognize the unconscious sources in their conflicts they can resolve these
conflicts and discard their neurotic defenses
Modern Psychodynamic Therapies
-Evidence suggests that the amount of resistance manifested in psychodynamic
therapy predicts the outcome of therapy
-Helpful in the treatment of a diverse array of disorders including panic disorders,
borderline personality disorder and substance abuse
Client- Centered Therapy * Carl Rogers
-Insight therapy but emphasizes providing a supportive emotional climate for clients
because they play a major role in determine the pace and direction of their therapy
-Approach much different from Freud
-Incongruence makes people feel threatened by realistic feedback about themselves
from others
-Anxiety often leads to reliance on defense mechanisms , to distortions of reality and
to sifted personal growth
-They encourage clients to respect their own feelings and values
-They people restructure their self-concept to correspond better to reality
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